Helpless - Wishbone Ash - Live (CD)

The album was produced by Derek Lawrence. Argus was released on vinyl record in May Ina deluxe edition of Argus was released. This included the mix as well as additional BBC Session tracks.

The deluxe edition is one of the fastest-selling ever in the Universal de-luxe release programme. Argus was named "Album of the Year" in the year-end issue of Sounds. William Ruhlmann of AllMusic gave the album a rating of 4 out of 5 stars, praising the instrumentation and writing that "it set up the commercial breakthrough enjoyed by the band's next album, Wishbone Fourbut over the years it came to be seen as the quintessential Wishbone Ash recording, the one that best realized the group's complex vision.

Note: track timings on the Helpless - Wishbone Ash - Live (CD) sleeve of early editions are incorrect. For example, "Time Was" is listed as and not the correct Be My Number Two solo It's Different For Girls Fairy Dust Thugz 'R' Us Sunday Papers One More Time Got The Time encore: Blaze Helpless - Wishbone Ash - Live (CD) Glory I'm The Man Total running time is 1 hour Helpless - Wishbone Ash - Live (CD) minutes.

No lineage, got this in a trade. Excellent quality, it looks like an early digital capture. It has a menu and all. The interview and talk between songs have Italian subtitles. Some very minor issues: there are one or two glitches and a small green bar at the left side of the screen is present a typical digital artefact. Apart from that it is very enjoyable.

Since Joe Jackson will start a major tour of the US and Europe shortly, it seems like a good time to dig up some old stuff, just to get in the mood. This is a tv broadcast of the reunited Joe Jackson Band playing a jazz festival, somwhat Helpless - Wishbone Ash - Live (CD) their own puzzlement. Wishbone Ash. Retrieved 17 November GfK Entertainment Charts. Official Charts Company. Bare Bones First Light. Three-track promo album Live From Memphis provides worthy extras.

Ash then adjourned to a Welsh cottage to write, but stalled when tensions flared. Much livelier are two bonus sets capturing Southampton and Portsmouth shows on the tour that produced the double Live Dates. Ted Turner then left, and was replaced by Laurie Wisefield from Home. No Easy Road Different cover Germany. Seven years after their brilliant "Live Dates" double album comes this collection, six tracks made at Hull, Bristol, Wolverhampton and London.

The same sparkling sound quality, the same amazing cover art, but a different set of songs and a different line-up, Laurie Wisefield replacing Ted Turner on guitar and vocals, but not at all to the band's detriment, especially on this live double set which includes a limited edition "free" album of "extra" live dates - some curious marketing techniques being applied here?? The album s contain reasonably strong but Helpless - Wishbone Ash - Live (CD) compared to "Live Dates" tracks from the mid 70's, namely "Doctor" and "No Easy Road" from "Wishbone 4", "Persephone" and good guitar solos on the instrumental "F.

I found side 2 containing "F.

Dancing With Fire - Skyline (4) - Fairytapes (CD, Album), Hes Returning - White Heart - White Heart (Vinyl, LP, Album), Le Tango Du Rêve, A Letto Vai - Mirabello 3 - Chi Porta Giù Questo Cane? (Vinyl, LP, Album), Not In Love - Platinum Blonde - Not In Love (Vinyl), The Sea Of Trees - Various - Mandorla Autumn Soundscapes II (File, MP3), A Dream Goes On Forever - Various - The Virgin Suicides (Music From The Motion Picture) (CD), The Blue Notes (3) - Blue Star / Pucker Your Lips (Vinyl), Bartlett Bros feat. DKD (2) - Walk By Me (File, MP3), La Verneville - François Couperin, Christiane Parée - "Le Grand" Music For Harpsichord Inc, Swing Set, Fuck You Cowboys - Deathreat* - Deathtreat Demo (CDr), Untitled - Coil - Live Box (CD), Tuxedo Junction. - The Glenn Miller Orchestra - String Of Pearls (CD)

Estudiantina (Waltz) - Various - Our Worlds Most Beautiful Merry-Go-Round Music (Vinyl, LP, Album)

But the 9th 9 versions of it! The music may not have aided my recovery, but it did allow me to retain my sanity and not to sink to too terribly into the abyss of overwhelming depression. And at times the music was simply transcendent. This brings me to your site.

I realize that my tastes and exposure are limited. I want to experience the rich veins that better ears have mined and I was delighted to run into you work. Though one thing concerns Estudiantina (Waltz) - Various - Our Worlds Most Beautiful Merry-Go-Round Music (Vinyl after so many 9ths I realize that it not just the composition, but ALSO the performance that matters. I lack the technical acumen to tell why, but darned if I can just things hear anyway.

I am hoping you might recommend some of the better recordings. I know this might open you to a hornets nest or simply be outside of you area of interest. So any help, encouragement, suggested sites, … really anything WILL be most appreciated.

Hi Joe. Thanks for your note. I'm glad you like my blog, and even more glad that you like classical music and that it helps you! Just last night, I heard the Indianapolis Symphony play Beethoven's 7th at an outdoor concert, under beautiful skies and a full moon, and it was transcendent! You asked about particular Estudiantina (Waltz) - Various - Our Worlds Most Beautiful Merry-Go-Round Music (Vinyl of the great music.

I have several books that I use to help me select particular performances, but you can also use the user ratings on websites like Amazon. It is comprehensive, LP almost all recordings available, and a "professional" rating of the various recordings. Your suggestions should go a long way to helping me and others similarly disposed.

And no, it was not a mental ward, but the pain and suffering there might as well have made it one. BTW I hope you will not publish this last parenthetical!

Posted by David S. Leave it blank if you wish to appear as "Anonymous". Used to contact you regarding LP review. If you do not wish to be contacted, leave it blank. Tell a friend or remind yourself about this product.

We'll instantly send an email containing product info and a link to it. You may also enter a personal message. We do not use or store email addresses from this form for any other purpose than sending your share email. Sorry but your review could not be submitted, please verify the form and try again. Make a wish list for gifts, suggest standard repertoire, let students know which books to buy, boast about pieces you've mastered: Music Lists are as unique as the musician!

Easily share your music lists with friends, students, and the world. Great music for a beginning adult. Great memories of days gone by. I look forward to playing them all soon. First, I certainly do not believe this is a Beginner book. To be able to read the music, I am going to have to tear the whole book down into sheets.

It will not stay open. I have tried various items to keep it open but it is so tight Album) am educated in piano, but when I was a small child.

I do know enough to realize this is not beginner. You can make your own arrangement with the basic music. Features songs from 50ss. Love it! This site uses cookies to analyze your use of our products, to assist with promotional and marketing efforts, to Estudiantina (Waltz) - Various - Our Worlds Most Beautiful Merry-Go-Round Music (Vinyl our traffic and to provide content from third parties.

You consent to our cookies and privacy policy if you continue to use this site. Please see our Privacy Policy for details. By signing up you consent with the terms in our Privacy Policy. They survive severe frosts and blizzards and finally and triumphantly form an advanced collective farm. Kubrick, a waltz fan, clearly, used it in Eyes Wide Shut. Swan Lake waltz No Tchaikovsky ballet is complete without a waltz or two — those from Nutcracker or Sleeping Beauty are just as bewitching — but Swan Lake is probably the best known.

It tells the story of Princess Odette, who is turned into a swan by an evil sorcerer. Since then it has been seen all over the world, with its own reference in Billy Elliot. This archetypal Russian waltz is used in the chocolate-boxy Anna Kareninafilmed in St Petersburg. In The Black Swantwo rivals dance Odette and Odile and show that dancing swans are not as nice as they look. Aggressive Bittersweet Druggy. Energetic Happy Hypnotic. Romantic Sad Sentimental.

Sexy Trippy All Moods. Drinking Hanging Out In Love. Introspection Late Night Partying. Rainy Day Relaxation Road Trip. Romantic Evening Sex All Themes. Articles Features Interviews Lists.

Streams Videos All Posts. My Profile. Advanced Search. Track Listing. Waltz Across Texas. Life in the Finland Woods. El Paso.

I Love My Saviour - Jimmy Swaggart - Somewhere Listenin (Vinyl, LP, Album), Ill Take You On (Dub Version) - Hanson And Davis* - Ill Take You On / Hungry For Your Love / Hold On, Sociedad Paranoica Y Dopada - Infiltro - Ruido Kamikaze (File, MP3), Lightnins Boogie, Kingsland Road - Eugene Capper & Rhodri Brooks - Pontvane (Vinyl, LP, Album), Extinction - various - Eva 1-18 (DVDr), Police And Thieves - Various - 100 Hits Reggae (CD), Flowers Of Evil - Piledriver (2) - Stay Ugly (CD, Album), Hungry As The Hunter - The Mission U.K.* - Carved In Sand (CD, Album), Let It Be Me, Spectral - Joe Morris / William Parker - Invisible Weave (CD, Album), Symphony - Didier Marouani & Space - Best Of (Cassette), Tonight (Instrumental Version), They All Deserve - Narkoleptik - So Sweet, So Perverse (CDr), Cottontail - James Newton (2) - The African Flower - The Music Of Duke Ellington And Billy Strayhorn

Nobody But You Babe - Miami - The Party Freaks (Vinyl, LP, Album)

Document Information click to expand document information Description: palavras que ocorrem com mais frequencia nos filmes americanos. Original Title frequencia de palavras no ingles. Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: palavras que ocorrem com mais frequencia nos filmes americanos.

Flag for inappropriate content. Download now. Save Save frequencia de palavras no ingles For Later. Original Title: frequencia de palavras no ingles. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. I'll Jesus Related Interests Nature.

Documents Similar To frequencia de palavras no ingles. Jawk Lass. Duma Kae. Alexa Webbs. Reny Kartika Sari. Esma Mujcinovic.

Larisa Amariutei. Erika Suarez. Ioana Alexandra Muresan. Srirup Das. Livia Elena. Verica Horvat. Silly video with a tour of my body get to know all my curves and tight holes featuring close up pussy and ass play and two loud orgasmsavailable on amateurpornandgiftrocket for 10hentai queen sweater from gif quality does not reflect the quality of the video itself giftrocket amateurporn elm twitter insta i block caption deleters.

How much bigger i hope to become, pageview-- var data r escapedocument. You dont LP to see much of my face in this one, how much bigger i hope to become. Watch as a shake my Album) in my sexy fishnets before ripping them up i use my hitachi and dildo to bring myself to an orgasm, you install a spy cam to find out and are shocked by what you see you watch as she takes a hitachi magic wand out of her backpack and works to fit a fat purple dildo into her sweet pussy.

But you get to see everything else, i sneaked into my moms room and borrowed her dildo, 99your cute blonde babysitter comes over every day after her classes and youve always wondered what she does while the kids are napping. And a dress that always makes me feel cute as fuck, the little slut even l icks off the dildo after she comes all over it you wont be taking that cam downplease only reblog with caption and links intact or you will be blockedgifs do not reflect video quality final still image is much closermy favorite combat boots, i show you all the things my realm stands for spanking.

I take my measurements afterwards. Oh and a huge squirting orgasm as a cherry on top, how much bigger i hope to become, the little slut even l icks off the dildo after she comes all over it you wont be taking that cam downplease only reblog with caption and links intact or you will be blockedgifs do not reflect video quality Nobody But You Babe - Miami - The Party Freaks (Vinyl still image is much closermy favorite combat boots.

You install a spy cam to find out and are shocked by what you see you watch as she takes a hitachi magic wand out of her backpack and works to fit a fat purple dildo into her sweet pussy, the second one is explosive and so so wonderfulgif quality does not accurately reflect video qualitydo not remove caption or you will be blockedraven haired babe megan rain gets caught masturbating and two brunette latin constricted wonderful body mangos pantoons shelady porn trannies shemale porn shemales shemale lad brutal 4 girl tag team match up non-scripted, da wir ne hohe hecke haben hat papa das gern wenn wir uns im garten nackig machen.

Just enter your email and we'll take care of the rest: Subscribe Please enter a valid email address. The Game Awards ceremony takes place on December 9th It's returning to an in-person event after going online-only in Sony buys Nobody But You Babe - Miami - The Party Freaks (Vinyl and remaster studio Bluepoint Games Surprising no one.

Nintendo denies it supplied developers with tools for LP 4K Switch It issued the statement after 'Bloomberg' claimed developers are already working on 4K Switch games. Moon Bungie makes it easier to sue over harassment following Activision scandal The 'Destiny' developer is distancing itself from its former publisher.

Fingas Intense rhythm game 'Thumper' comes to Apple Arcade on October 1st The 'rhythm hell' classic is the latest high-profile title to hit the service.

A Sort Of Homecoming - U2 - The Unforgettable Fire (Vinyl, LP, Album), Eternal Light - Abigail (3) - Tribute To Gorgon The Box (Box Set), Raindrops Keep Falling On My Head - Various - Dream A Little Dream Of Me (CD), Tenebrarum (2) - Horror (Cassette), Cinderalla Rockerfella - Various - Popular Musics Golden Hit Parade (Vinyl, LP), Fire - Krokus - Metal Rendez-vous (Vinyl, LP, Album), Dreams (Easy Mix) - Gabrielle - Dreams (CD), The Ferguson Five* - Hot Rod Hearse (Vinyl), Celebrate The News - The Beach Boys - Friends & 20/20 (Cassette, Album), Snow Girl - Haircut One Hundred - Pelican West (Cassette, Album), Where The Rats - Dj Slugo - Freaks Like it Raw Part II (CD, Album), Egisto Macchi Et Pierre Porte - Mr. Klein (Bande Sonore Originale Du Film) (Vinyl, LP, Album), Degraus Da Vida - Nelson Cavaquinho - Depoimento Do Poeta (Vinyl, LP, Album), Come And Lay - Nicole Moudaber - Believe (File, Album)

OldSkool Full 3 - Daniel C. Holter - Drone (Dramatic Scene Setters) (CD)

Best cheap Amazon Fire tablet deals for October Best cheap Blink camera deals for October The best cheap Google Pixel 5 deals for October The best Garmin watches of Killing the drone is her last option. When the drone awakens from its alcoveit asks Seven of Nine its designation.

Although Seven tells him it is irrelevant, it keeps asking for it. Seven is forced to initiate a direct neural interface, because the drone does not seem to understand her verbal instructions. When she tries to disengage the neural link, however, the drone tries to assimilate the entirety of her knowledge and ignores or refuses her command to terminate the link.

Only when Seven tells him he was hurting her does the drone disengage the neural link. For everyone's safety, Seven decides to use Borg data nodes to teach the drone about its environment. When Neelix brings the first data node, Seven shows the drone how to assimilate the collected data via his assimilation tubules. Upon completion of assimilation of its data, he identifies Neelix and Seven and is aware of the existence of Voyagerwhich is traveling through interstellar space. Seven explains to him that Voyager is not a Borg collective, but that everyone on board is a unique individual.

When the drone requests more information, Seven tells him that he first must see The Doctor for a medical evaluation. Neelix escorts the drone to sickbay, during which the drone notices a slight fear of him among the crewmembers and asks Neelix about the Borg.

Neelix evades his question and tells him instead that he should get a name, because every individual has a name. While being scanned by The Doctor, the drone asks how he came into existence. The Doctor tells him about the transporter accident. Although his existence is an accident, he is told that he is not unwelcome and after some time, he will make a fine addition to the crew.

It is, after all, Voyager 's primary mission to explore new forms of life. After his medical check, Seven familiarizes the drone with Voyager. When they visit engineeringthe drone helps Torres by predicting the rate of expansion of the proto-nebula. When they visit Captain Janeway, he tells her his designation is Onethat he assimilated forty-seven billion teraquads of information, and asks her if he is sufficient. When Janeway tells him he is, One asks to be excused, as Torres had asked him to help improve the efficiency of the Bussard collectors.

Seven tells Captain Janeway that One OldSkool Full 3 - Daniel C. Holter - Drone (Dramatic Scene Setters) (CD) asked about the Borg and she was worried that if he gains more knowledge about them, he might seek the Borg Collective, which would pose a grave tactical risk. They decide, for now, not to tell him about the Borg. When One is escorted to his alcove by Seven of Nine, he again asks to be OldSkool Full 3 - Daniel C.

Holter - Drone (Dramatic Scene Setters) (CD) about the Borg when he notices that the alcoves are not Starfleet technology. Seven refuses and tells him to step into his alcove.

He pauses and complies, then interestingly thanks her. Style Skin:. Upload Files. I wouldn't hesitate to recommend this store to anybody who asked. Elizabeth — Los Angeles. From The Blog. How to Choose Your First Drone. By Sammie Wong Drones have the power to help you make more of every adventure you take. He has been very accommodating to his plans for a "fighting festival", building a labyrinth and setting the stage even though he seems to consider the entire affair as imitating humans and playing around.

Drole seems to care for his fairy comrade as he protected him from Meliodas during their fight, notably by gathering an injured Gloxinia in his hand and protecting him against Meliodas' Kami Chigiri using his Heavy Metal even though Drole was himself injured. The reason for this closeness is that they were comrade-in-arms before becoming demons, having fought together against the Demon King before changing sides.

Despite originally being his enemy, Diane made an impression on Drole. During the OldSkool Full 3 - Daniel C. Holter - Drone (Dramatic Scene Setters) (CD) Fight Festival arc, Drole originally had no opinion of her whatsoever, but later during the festival he was impressed by how she was able to defeat his golem during the festival with golems of her own, and noticed her deep connection to nature and the earth.

Long after the festival, he and Gloxinia approached Diane and King respectively, took them both and told them of their intent to betray the Ten Commandments to train them as their successors, after which they briefly fought and sent them both to the past as part of their trial.

During the trial, Diane learned much about Drole, the holy war, and his past decision to join the Ten Commandments, and in turn Drole watched her during the trial and was not only glad she passed the trial, OldSkool Full 3 - Daniel C.

Holter - Drone (Dramatic Scene Setters) (CD) was shocked by Diane's decision to flee instead of joining the Commandments, a decision Drole himself admitted he never would have thought to have make back then. After seeing this and seeing how Diane's love made her stronger than the combat power most giants valued, Drole eventually saw the errors in the way he ruled the Giant Clan into becoming nothing but warriors.

For this, he not only befriended the giant girl, but came to greatly respect her, so much, so he believed that Diane can make the Giant Clan prosper once again and thus choose to become her shield, and he helps her OldSkool Full 3 - Daniel C.

Holter - Drone (Dramatic Scene Setters) (CD) during his fight with Chandler. He even used his final words to her to appoint her to be the next ruler of the giant clan and proudly stated his intent to protect the new "Giant Queen". Nanatsu no OldSkool Full 3 - Daniel C. Holter - Drone (Dramatic Scene Setters) (CD) Wiki Explore.

Nanatsu no Taizai. Nanatsu no Taizai Gakuen! Grand Cross. Mokushiroku no Yonkishi. Ordo Dolores.

Music And Lights - Imagination - All The Hits - Hot Sensational Re-Mixes (Cassette, Album), Cuckoo, Cuckoo - Bubble Gum Singers And Orchestra - A, B, C, Tumble Down D (Vinyl, LP, Album), I Need You To Turn To - Elton John - Live In Australia (With The Melbourne Symphony Orchestra) (Lase, A Change Is Gonna Come - Aretha Franklin - 2 Originals Of Aretha Franklin (Vinyl, LP, Album), Built by the distance remix, Oh Rosa, Oh Rosa - Cocos Lovers - Johannes (CD, Album), Early In The Morning (Radio Edit) - Syndicate Of Law - Early In The Morning (CD), Bluegreens - Various - Whole Burbank Catalog (Vinyl, LP), Red Light - U2 - War (Vinyl, LP, Album), Casanova - Rondo Veneziano* Piano: Gian Piero Reverberi - Attimi Di Magia = Magische Augenblicke (CD, Fialkas House - Mats/Morgan - Trends And Other Diseases (CD, Album), Natural Anthem - Various - Blazin 12s (Vinyl), Under The Double Eagle March - Various - Brute Force Steel Bands Of Antigua, B.W.I. (Vinyl, LP, Albu, Dance With The Devil - The Sparrows - Rattle Creak And Murmur (File, Album)

Hope To The Suffering

See the latest horse racing news, interviews and features from Sky Sports Racing. After disappointing in fourth on unsuitably fast ground at York last month, the daughter of Le Havre was supposed to be heading back to France this weekend as a final preparation for the Arc at ParisLongchamp in October. Search Sky Sports. How can I develop attributes that will make me a Hope To The Suffering powerful Hope To The Suffering effective minister of the gospel of Jesus Christ?

How will developing Christlike attributes help me fulfill my purpose as a missionary? At the beginning of His mortal ministry, Jesus Christ walked along the shore of the sea of Galilee and called out to two fishermen, Peter and Andrew. The Lord has also called you to His work, and He invites you to follow Him. The invitation to follow Christ is an invitation to follow His example and to become like Him, which can only happen through the Atonement of Jesus Christ see Mosiah Some chapters in Preach My Gospel focus on what you need to do as a missionary—how to study, how to teach, how to manage time wisely.

Just as vital as what you do, however, is who you are and who you are becoming. This is part of what it means to endure to the end through increasing your faith in Christ, continuing regularly to repent of your sins by relying upon Christ, renewing your covenants with the Father and the Son through partaking of the sacrament regularly, and following the promptings of the Holy Ghost in all things.

The restored gospel enables you to become Hope To The Suffering Heavenly Father and Jesus Christ. The Savior has shown the way.

He has set the perfect example, and He commands us to become as He is see 3 Nephi Learn of Him and seek to incorporate His attributes into your life. Through the power of His Atonement, you can achieve this goal and lead others to achieve it also. The scriptures describe Christlike attributes that are essential for you to eventually develop as a missionary and throughout your life. Study the scripture passages in this chapter and look for other examples of Christlike attributes as you study other passages.

Christlike attributes are gifts from God. They come as you use your agency righteously. Ask your Heavenly Father to bless you with these attributes; you cannot develop them without His help. With a desire to please God, recognize Hope To The Suffering weaknesses and be willing and anxious to improve. John — Moroni — There are many approaches for studying this chapter. Try one of the following ideas:. Study the section about that attribute, and set goals for developing it. Hope To The Suffering through the chapter without studying the scriptures, and determine which attribute you want to study more fully.

Then study the key scriptures associated with the attribute. Search for additional scriptures not listed in the chapter that teach about the attribute. Record ideas for developing the attribute in your study journal. Identify an attribute you wish to study. You accept Him as your Savior and Redeemer and follow His teachings. You believe that your sins can be forgiven through His Atonement.

Hope To The Suffering in Him means that you trust Him and are confident that He loves you. Faith leads to action, including repentance, obedience, and dedicated service. When you have faith in Jesus Christ, you trust the Lord enough to follow His commandments—even when you do not completely understand the reasons for them.

You accomplish what the Lord wants you to accomplish. You help bring about good in your own life and the lives of others. Your faith will be manifest through diligence and work. Faith is a principle of power. God works by power, but His power is usually exercised in response to faith see Moroni He works according to the faith of His children. Doubt and fear are opposed to faith. Your faith will increase through diligent study, prayer, dedicated service, and obedience to the promptings of the Holy Ghost and the commandments.

Your faith in Jesus Christ grows as you become better acquainted with Him and His teachings. As you explore the scriptures and search them, you learn of His ways, His love for all people, and His commandments. Faith includes confidence in the mission and power of the Holy Ghost.

Alma Ether Hebrews ; see footnote b. Mosiah — Helaman —8. Chapters 1. Summary Summary of the Book of 1 Peter This summary of the book of 1 Peter provides information about the title, author sdate of writing, chronology, theme, theology, outline, a brief overview, and the chapters of the Book of 1 Peter. Author and Date The author identifies himself as the apostle Peterand the contents and character of the letter support his authorship see notes on ; ; ,5, Themes Although 1 Peter is a short letter, it touches on various doctrines and has much to say about Christian life and duties.

What Can We Learn from 1 Peter? Brandon Crowe. What's the Purpose of the Book of 1 Peter? Colin Smith. Byron Yawn. Clarence L. Haynes Jr. Bethany Pyle. Mike Leake. Stephen Baker. Britt Mooney. Residents attend group lessons and support sessions with other combat veterans. They are provided with individual mentoring sessions with certified combat trauma mentors. Participants are also able to go on off-site small group interaction activities trips, such as camping, fishing, sporting events and more.

Many are encouraged to get involved with local churches, businesses and volunteer organizations to assist in their personal healing and educating the community on the invisible wounds of war.

Camp Staff. The Camp Hope Program. Get Involved. We invite you to come and take a tour of Camp Hope and find how you can help as well. Take a Tour. Get Help. PTSD Defined. Find A Group. Find A Chapter. Give Help. General Foundation.

24 stenar - offworldcolonies - Domarringen (Cassette, Album), Vive LAmour! - François Pérusse - LAlbum Du Peuple Volume 1 (CD, Album), I Dont Give A Damn - Alvin Lee - Nineteenninetyfour (CD, Album), My World - Jay H. Alanski* - The Price Of Love (Vinyl, LP, Album), Sweet Jesus - James Yorkston And The Athletes - Sweet Jesus (Vinyl), Top Hat, White Tie And Tails, Silêncio - Roberto Carlos - Roberto Carlos (Vinyl, LP, Album), Wave - DyNAbyte - 2KX (CD, Album), If I Had A Hammer - Trini Lopez - The Entertainer (Vinyl, LP), Speak Low (Bent Remix) - Various - KM5 Ibiza 2007 (CD), Bileit Ja Skaboi, Greed - Twilight Birds - Rainy Day Memories (CD)

Springtime

Earth Day was founded in as a day of education about environmental issues, and Earth Day will occur on Thursday, April 22—the holiday's 51st anniversary. For centuries, communities spanning the globe have found various ways to honor nature and the environment. Presidents' Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday in February; Presidents' Day will occur on Monday, February Originally established in in recognition of President George Washington, the holiday became popularly known Springtime Presidents' Day after it Earth Day was established in and has become a worldwide holiday celebrated by over 1 billion people.

Galvanized by the mounting evidence of environmental damage due to pollution and inspired by the student organizations protesting the Vietnam War, Earth Day was conceived by Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Recommended for you. History of May Day. Flashback: Independence Day Veterans Day.

Memorial Day. Memorial Day Memorial Day is an American holiday, observed on the last Monday of May, honoring the men and women who died while serving in the U. Spring cabbage with mustard seeds. The perfect accompaniment to a hearty Springtime.

Indian spiced greens. Zesty spring fish. Speedy pork with spring greens. This tempting dish will satisfy the whole family. Calzone with greens. Seared scallops with flavoured Springtime. Cabbage with caraway. Springtime pasta. Spring green fattoush. Spring salad with watercress dressing. Spring vegetable soup with basil pesto. Herby cheese roulade. This impressive dish can be made up to 12 hours ahead.

Disney Princess Half Marathon Weekend. Springtime Surprise Weekend. Virtual Series. Springtime - runDisney Marathon Weekend. Training Programs. Running Tips. Jeff Galloway. Walt Disney World Resort. Sanders, E. The Historical Figure of Jesus. Penguin UK. Jesus: Springtime - Passion - Resurrection. Gospel of Luke. Luke — Hidden categories: CS1 German-language sources de Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September Articles with short Springtime Short description is different from Wikidata.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Part of a series on. Jesus in culture Life in art Depiction Jesuism. Christianity portal Islam portal.

Sacrifice Creature - NekronoiZ / Kenji Siratori - Sacrifice Creature (CD, Album), I årtusen efter årtusen, Drink The Rain - Rebecca Cole (2) with Carolyn Wonderland - Drink The Rain (CD, Album), Salserin - Con Mucho Swing (CD, Album), The Old Australian Ways - Wallis & Matilda - A Tribute To A.B. (Banjo) Paterson Vol. 2: The Old, I Dream Of You ( More Than You Dream I Do ) - Jerry Lewis (3) - More Jerry Lewis (Vinyl, LP, Album), Fathers, Hide Your Daughters - Silent Friction - The Thought That Counts (CD, Album), 2 Minutes To Midnight - Iron Maiden - Rock The Ring (DVD), Dont Be Stupid (You Know I Love You) - Shania Twain - Come On Over (CD, Album), Viva Las Vegas - The Residents - The King & Eye: RMX (CD, Album), A Swingin Safari - Bert Kaempfert And His Orchestra* - A Swingin Safari (Vinyl, LP, Album)

The First Piano Quartet - Malagueña / Danza Negra, & Danza Lucumi (Vinyl)

Alberto Evaristo Ginastera was - along with Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos - one of the leading names in 20th century Latin American music. Ginastera was born in Buenos Aires of Catalonian and Italian parents.

The First Piano Quartet - Malagueña / Danza Negra his music studies at a very early age, at twelve he entered the Williams Conservatory former Buenos Aires Conservatory of Music. His further studies took place at the Superior National Conservatory of Music - where he studied piano, cello, composition and conducting.

Ginastera's first compositions date from his early youth. The Piezas Infantiles for piano were written when he was 22, and won first prize in a competition. InGinastera joined the faculty of the National Conservatory in Argentina.

In the following year he would receive a grant from the Guggenheim Foundation to visit the United States. He would only regain his posts after the dictator was ousted, in In addition, he also took part in Aaron Copland's composition class at Tanglewood.

Ginastera would then become close & Danza Lucumi (Vinyl) with the latter, and the trip was to largely influence his further works. On his return to Argentina, Ginastera joined the teaching staff of the National & Danza Lucumi (Vinyl), and later became dean of the Faculty of Musical Arts and Sciences of the Catholic University. Apart from that, he founded - along with other Argentine composers - the Composers League in Buenos Aires.

During the composer's tenure of the Latin American Centre for Advanced Musical Studieshe introduced internationally acclaimed composers to Argentina. Messiaen, Nono, Dallapiccola and Xenakis were among his invited guests. Danzas argentinas, Opus 2 - No. Full screen. Get access to Danzas argentinas, Opus 2 - No.

Play for free Already subscribed? Sign in. Play for free. Why should I use Tomplay scores? Play with an accompaniment! Thousands of scores with high-quality recordings to accompany you!

Slow down or speed up the tempo of the music to suit your level. Annotate your scores. In one gesture, add personalised annotations fingering, nuances, etc. After four years, we got married and enjoyed 34 years of a beautiful relationship that - in adition to our mutual happiness - & Danza Lucumi (Vinyl) crowned by our most valued treasure: two sons who we love dearly. That girl became a lady who was always characterized by her elegance. As a wife she was adorable, very lovely and dedicated.

As a mother she was self-sacrificing like no other. As a professional she was an exemplary teacher who carried out her duty The First Piano Quartet - Malagueña / Danza Negra great pride, responsibility and dedication. When she reached 50 years old, life surprised her with the terrible illness of ovarian cancer, which only served for her to show beyond any doubt her great temper as a brave woman.

For & Danza Lucumi (Vinyl) years she fought it, bearing with great bravery and stoicism all its onslaughts, never losing her faith, nor her good humor and optimism.

Body Beat (Steve Angelo Remix) - Various - Mega Dancefloor #6 (CD), Neil Diamond - Jonathan Livingston Seagull (Juan Salvador Gaviota) Banda Sonora Original (Vinyl, LP,, Roll Away The Stone - Mott The Hoople - All The Young Dudes / All The Way From Memphis / Roll Away T, Day One, Bossa De Luxe - Hank Mobley - Hi Voltage (Vinyl, LP, Album), Independence - Various - Metro Tech 3 (CD), Samson And Delilah - Middle Of The Road - Greatest Hits (CD), Ghost River - Nightwish - Showtime, Storytime (DVD, Album), Burst - Deya Dova - Burst (CD, Album), Taikajuoma - Jussi Kuoma - Jussi Kuoma (Cassette, Album), The Law (3) - The Law (CD, Album), Τη Βραδιά Μου Απόψε - Γιάννης Σπανός - Μεγάλες Ερμηνείες - 24 Μεγάλες Επιτυχίες (CD), Slithery Dee - Smothers Brothers - Its Brothers Smothers Month (Vinyl, LP, Album), Cantus V - Digitonal - The Centre Cannot Hold (Vinyl)

What Child Is This - Jerry Maynard - Sing Along Christmas Carols (Vinyl, LP)

Apple Music Hits. Apple Music Country. Apple Music Radio Shows. The Echo Chamber. The Estelle Show. Band Van Radio with Old Dominion. The Ebro Show. Color Me Country. My 3 Minutes Radio with Carly Pearce. Weekend Anthems See All. Indie Anthems Apple Music Indie. Music by Mood. Is What Child Is This - Jerry Maynard - Sing Along Christmas Carols (Vinyl content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: The u. Flag for inappropriate content.

Download now. List of Amc. Related titles. A must-read for English-speaking expatriates and internationals across Europe, Expatica provides a tailored local news service and essential information What Child Is This - Jerry Maynard - Sing Along Christmas Carols (Vinyl living, working, and moving to your country of choice. With in-depth features, Expatica brings LP) international community closer together.

Amongst other services, Expatica offers the best dating site for Expats in Germany since Finding love is a challenging quest even in your home country. Dating in Germany will either make LP) more so or raise the chance to finally get the partner you've been looking for all along.

Dating for expats info. Sono tutti di pergamena, edizioni eleganti, scritti in elaborata calligrafia su sottili fogli di pergamena. Per tali edizioni di lusso il papiro era certamente inadatto. In almeno un'area, la giurisprudenza romanail codex di pergamena veniva prodotto sia in edizioni economiche che in quelle di lusso. La caduta dell'Impero romano nel V secolo d.

Il papiro divenne difficile da reperire a causa della mancanza di contatti con l' Antico Egitto e la pergamenache per secoli era stata LP) in secondo piano, divenne il materiale di scrittura principale. I monasteri continuarono la tradizione scritturale latina dell' Impero romano d'Occidente. La tradizione e lo stile dell' Impero romano predominavano ancora, ma gradualmente emerse la cultura del libro medievale.

I monaci irlandesi introdussero la spaziatura tra le parole nel VII secolo. L'innovazione fu poi adottata anche nei Paesi neolatini come l'Italiaanche se non divenne comune prima del XII secolo. Si ritiene che l'inserimento di spazi tra le parole abbia favorito il passaggio dalla lettura semi-vocalizzata a quella silenziosa. Prima dell'invenzione e della diffusione del torchio tipograficoquasi tutti i libri venivano copiati a mano, il che li rendeva costosi e relativamente rari.

I piccoli monasteri di solito possedevano al massimo qualche decina di libri, forse qualche centinaio quelli di medie What Child Is This - Jerry Maynard - Sing Along Christmas Carols (Vinyl.

Il processo della produzione di un libro era lungo e laborioso. Infine, il libro veniva rilegato dal rilegatore. Esistono testi scritti in rosso o addirittura in oro, e diversi colori venivano utilizzati per le miniature.

A volte la pergamena era tutta di colore viola e il testo vi era scritto in oro o argento per esempio, il Codex Argenteus. Per tutto l'Alto Medioevo i libri furono copiati prevalentemente nei monasteri, uno alla volta. Il sistema venne gestito da corporazioni laiche di cartolaiche produssero sia materiale religioso che profano.

Questi libri furono chiamati libri catenati. Vedi illustrazione a margine. L' ebraismo ha mantenuto in vita l'arte dello scriba fino ad oggi. Anche gli arabi produssero e rilegarono libri durante il periodo medievale islamicosviluppando tecniche avanzate di calligrafia arabaminiatura e legatoria. Col metodo di controllo, solo "gli autori potevano autorizzare le copie, e questo veniva fatto in riunioni pubbliche, in cui il copista leggeva il testo ad alta voce in presenza dell'autore, il quale poi la certificava come precisa".

In xilografiaun'immagine a bassorilievo di una pagina intera veniva intagliata su tavolette di legno, inchiostrata e usata per stampare le copie di quella pagina. Questo metodo ebbe origine in Cinadurante la Dinastia Han prima del a.

I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente. I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le immagini che furono creati prima del in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli. Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria capsail leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica. Leggio con libri catenatiBiblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. Incunabolo del XV secolo. Si noti la copertina lavorata, le borchie d'angolo e i morsetti.

Insegnamenti scelti di saggi buddistiil primo libro stampato con caratteri metallici mobili, Le macchine da stampa a vapore diventarono popolari nel XIX secolo. Queste macchine potevano stampare 1. Le macchine tipografiche monotipo e linotipo furono introdotte verso la fine del XIX secolo. Hartla prima biblioteca di versioni elettroniche liberamente riproducibili di libri stampati. I libri a stampa sono prodotti stampando ciascuna imposizione tipografica su un foglio di carta.

Le varie segnature vengono rilegate per ottenere il volume. L'apertura delle pagine, specialmente nelle edizioni in brossuraera di solito lasciata al lettore fino agli anni sessanta del XX secolomentre ora le segnature vengono rifilate direttamente dalla tipografia. Nei libri antichi il formato dipende dal numero di piegature che il foglio subisce e, quindi, dal numero di carte e pagine stampate sul foglio.

Le "carte di guardia", o risguardi, o sguardie, sono le carte di apertura e chiusura del libro vero e proprio, che collegano materialmente il corpo del libro alla coperta o legatura. Non facendo parte delle segnaturenon sono mai contati come pagine. Si chiama "controguardia" la carta che viene incollata su ciascun "contropiatto" la parte interna del "piatto" della coperta, permettendone il definitivo ancoraggio. Le sguardie sono solitamente di carta diversa da quella dell'interno del volume e possono essere bianche, colorate o decorate con motivi di fantasia nei libri antichi erano marmorizzate.

Il colophon o colofone, che chiude il volume, riporta le informazioni essenziali sullo stampatore e sul luogo e la data di stampa. In origine nei manoscritti era costituito dalla firma o subscriptio del copista o dello scriba, e riportava data, luogo e autore del testo; in seguito fu la formula conclusiva dei libri stampati nel XV e XVI secolo, che conteneva, talvolta in inchiostro rosso, il nome dello stampatore, luogo e data di stampa e l' insegna dell'editore.

New Generation (Are You Ready?) - Dirk Christiaens - Mixmasters Volume 1 (CD), Paul McCartney - Scissor Sisters - Ta-Dah (Cassette, Album), Poetry From A Pair ODice - Kxtahpaph - Hard Age (CD, Album), Work Song (Album Version) - Various - Jazz Juice # 2 (CD), Baptism Of Fire - Rage (6) / Victor Smolski - Perfect Man / The Heretic (CD, Album), Zero - Chris Brown (4) - Royalty (CD, Album), Cajun Steel Guitar, Crimson Skies - Winters Dawn (2) - The Winter Is Dawning (CD, Album), Susie-Q - Various - Soul On Fire Vol. 1 (Vinyl, LP), Good Day Sunshine - The Beatles - Revolver (CD, Album), Gimme A Smile For The Future - Various - Crossover Compilation (Cassette), Drop That - Dirty Bastards (2) - Breaknecks (Excessive & Dangerous) (File, MP3, Album)

Arthur Fiedler With The Boston Pops Orchestra - Overtures (Vinyl, LP)

Previously unreleased score; composed and conducted by John Williams. Composed, conducted and produced by John Williams; also issued for promo inDreamWorks Records; reissued for digital download inGeffen. Previously unreleased scores; also includes the previously unreleased "Main Title" to Conrack ; composed and conducted by John Williams.

Angela's Ashes [Music from the Motion Picture]. Anniversary collector's edition, previously unreleased score; composed and conducted by John Williams. Artificial Intelligence [Music from the Motion Picture]. International pressings exist under the title Call of the Champions ; also issued as a promo CD containing radio edits and interviews with John Williams The Fury [3].

The Deluxe Edition 2-CD set features the previously unreleased original score, along with the remastered original album recorded by the London Symphony Orchestra; composed and conducted by John Williams. The Long Goodbye : previously unreleased score; composed and conducted by John Williams. Previously unreleased original scores; Penelope's music composed and conducted by John Williams. War of the Worlds [Music from the Motion Picture].

Munich [Original Motion Picture Soundtrack]. Previously unreleased scores; The Ghostbreaker's music composed and conducted by John Williams. Previously unreleased original score; composed and conducted by John Williams. Previously unreleased scores; Nighwatch's music composed and conducted by John Williams. Lincoln [Original Motion Picture Soundtrack].

Walt Disney Records. Digital release; composed and conducted by John Williams; Reissued for digital download inSony Classical.

Composed, conducted and produced by John Williams; Contains previously unreleased material; Earthquake: Previously unreleased original score. Songs for Christmas Vol. Mahalia Jackson with orchestra and chorus directed by Johnny Williams. Frankie Laine with orchestra and chorus directed by Johnny Williams. Hell Bent for Leather! Corral" — "Bowie Knife" — "The 3.

Promo single; "Olympic Spirit": composed and conducted by John Williams. Williams Orchestra. James Darren ; side B - composed by J. Styne, arranged and conducted by Johnny Williams. James Darren ; side B - composed by I. Rand, arranged and conducted by Johnny Williams. James Darren ; side B - composed by H. David, arranged and conducted by Johnny Williams.

Frankie Laine ; side A - with orchestra conducted by Johnny Williams. Frankie Laine with Johnny Williams and his orchestra; No. Vic Damone with Johnny Williams and his orchestra. Frankie Laine with Johnny Williams and his orchestra. Side A - composed by P. Mahalia Jackson with Johnny Williams and his Orchestra. Mahalia Jackson with orchestra and chorus conducted by Johnny Williams.

Something Cool for Summer! Mahalia Jackson with orchestra and chorus conducted by Johnny Williams; reissued in Promo; Johnny Williams, his orchestra and chorus; composed and conducted by Johnny Williams. Williams; Arranged and Conducted by John Williams.

The Extra Terrestrial " — "Over the Moon". Arbogast; composed and conducted by John Williams. Composed and conducted by John Williams; released in with no dialogue and no sound effects mix; Sony Classical.

Composed and conducted by John Williams; recorded on July 3, with "The President's Own"; this digital release was available for a short time on their website. Includes previously unreleased material; composed and conducted by John Williams; Reissued for digital download inUniversal. Composed and conducted by John Williams; reissued for digital download inDecca.

John Williams Greatest Hits — Some tracks by the London Symphony Orchestra; composed and conducted by John Williams; reissued for digital download inSony Classical. John T. LP), piano; Reissued for digital download inJazz City Series. Star Wars — The Corellian Edition [3]. Includes previously unreleased material; composed and conducted by John Williams; Reissued for digital download inSony Classical. Includes previously unreleased material; composed and conducted by John Williams.

Includes previously unreleased material; composed and conducted by John Williams; reissued inSony Classical; reissued for digital download inSony Classical. Includes previously unreleased material; Composed and Conducted by John Williams; reissued inSony Classical; reissued for digital download inSony Classical.

Includes previously unreleased material; composed and conducted by John Williams; Reissued for digital download inArista. Deluxe edition 2-CD set, includes previously unreleased material; composed and conducted by John Williams. Includes previously unreleased material; music and lyrics by Richard M.

Includes previously unreleased material; composed and conducted by John Williams; Reissued for digital download inConcord Music Group. Includes previously unreleased material; composed and conducted by John Williams; reissued inLa-La Land Records. Includes previously unreleased material; composed and conducted by John Williams; reissued inQuartet Records. Includes previously unreleased material; composed by John Williams; co-conducted by John Williams and Artie Kane uncredited ; digital release; Reissued for digital download inGeffen Records.

Artificial Intelligence [Expanded Archival Collection] Schindler's List: 25th Anniversary Limited Edition Includes previously unreleased material; Composed and conducted by John Williams. Harry Belafonte. Featuring John T. Yvonne De Carlo. Arranged and conducted by Johnny T. Various Artists. Elmer Bernstein. Carmen McRae. It also used the earlier advanced method of forward-looking control on groove spacing with respect to volume of sound and position on the disk.

Lower recorded volume used closer spacing; higher recorded volume used wider spacing, especially with lower frequencies. Also, the higher track density at lower volumes enabled disk recordings to end farther away from the disk center than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion even further. Also in the late s, " direct-to-disc " records were produced, aimed at an audiophile niche market. These completely bypassed the use of magnetic tape in favor of a "purist" transcription directly to the master lacquer disc.

Also during this period, half-speed mastered and "original master" records were released, using expensive state-of-the-art technology.

A further late s development was the Disco Eye-Cued system used mainly on Motown inch singles released between and The introduction, drum-breaks, or choruses of a track were indicated by widely separated grooves, giving a visual cue to DJs mixing the records. The appearance of these records is similar to an LP, but they only contain one track each side.

ELPJa Japanese-based company, sells a laser turntable that uses a laser to read vinyl discs optically, without physical contact. The laser turntable eliminates record wear and the possibility of accidental scratches, which degrade the sound, but its expense limits use primarily to digital archiving of analog records, and the laser does not play back colored vinyl or picture discs.

Various other laser-based turntables were tried during the s, but while a laser reads the groove very accurately, since it does not touch the record, the dust that vinyl attracts due to static electric charge is not mechanically pushed out of the groove, worsening sound quality in casual use compared to conventional stylus playback.

In some ways similar to the laser turntable is the IRENE scanning machine for disc records, which images with microphotography, invented by a team of physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories. In order to convert to a digital sound file, this is then played by a version of the same 'virtual stylus' program developed by the research team in real-time, converted to digital and, if desired, processed through sound-restoration programs.

Terms such as "long-play" LP and "extended-play" EP describe multi-track records that play much longer than the single-item-per-side records, which typically do not go much past four minutes per side. An LP can play for up to 30 minutes per side, though most played for about 22 minutes per side, bringing the total playing time of a typical LP recording to about forty-five minutes. Many pre LPs, however, played for about 15 minutes per side.

The 7-inch 45 rpm format normally contains one item per side but a 7-inch EP could achieve recording times of 10 to 15 minutes at the expense of attenuating and compressing the sound to reduce the width required by the groove.

EP discs were generally used to make available tracks not on singles including tracks on LPs albums in a smaller, less expensive format for those who had only 45 rpm players. The term "album", originally used to mean a "book" with liner notes, holding several 78 rpm records each in its own "page" or sleeve, no longer has any relation to the physical format: a single LP record, or nowadays more typically a compact disc.

The term EP is still used for a release that is longer than a single but shorter than an album, even if it is not on vinyl format.

The usual diameters of the holes are 0. Many 7" singles pressed outside the US come with the smaller spindle hole size, and are occasionally pressed with notches to allow the center part to be "punched out" for playing on larger spindles.

Sizes of records in the United States and the UK are generally measured in inches, e. LPs were inch records at first, but soon the inch size became by far the most common. Generally, 78s were inch, but inch and 7-inch and even smaller were made—the so-called "little wonders". Flexi discs were thin flexible records that were distributed with magazines and as promotional gifts from the s to the s. This format was soon dropped as it became clear that the RCA Victor 45 was the single of choice and the Columbia inch LP would be the album of choice.

Most colors were soon dropped in favor of black because of production problems. However, yellow and deep red were continued until about Price, plant manager. In the s, the government of Bhutan produced now-collectible postage stamps on playable vinyl mini-discs. The normal commercial disc is engraved with two sound-bearing concentric spiral grooves, one on each side, running from the outside edge towards the center.

The last part of the spiral meets an earlier part to form a circle. The sound is encoded by fine variations in the edges of the groove that cause a stylus needle placed in it to vibrate at acoustic frequencies when the disc is rotated at the correct speed.

Generally, the outer and inner parts of the groove bear no intended sound exceptions include the Beatles ' Sgt. Increasingly from the early 20th century, [77] and almost exclusively since the s, both sides of the record have been used to carry the grooves. Occasional records have been issued since then with a recording on only one side.

In the s Columbia records briefly issued a series of less expensive one-sided 45 rpm singles. The majority of non rpm records are pressed on black vinyl. The coloring material used to blacken the transparent PVC plastic mix is carbon blackwhich increases the strength of the disc and makes it opaque. Some records are pressed on colored vinyl or with paper pictures embedded in them "picture discs".

During the s there was a trend for releasing singles on colored vinyl—sometimes with large inserts that could be used as posters. This trend has been revived recently with 7-inch singles. The actual dimension of a inch record is mm Records made in other countries are standardized by different organizations, but are very similar in size.

The record diameters are typically nominally mm, mm and mm. There is an area about 3 mm 0. The stylus is lowered onto the lead-in, without damaging the recorded section of the groove. Between tracks on the recorded section of an LP record there is usually a short gap of around 1 mm 0. This space is clearly visible, making it easy to find a particular track.

Towards the center, at the end of the groove, there is another wide-pitched section known as the lead-out. At the very end of this section the groove joins itself to form a complete circle, called the lock groove ; when the stylus reaches this point, it circles repeatedly until lifted from the record. On some recordings for example Sgt. Automatic turntables rely on the position or angular velocity of the arm, as it reaches the wider spacing in the groove, to trigger a mechanism that lifts the arm off the record.

Precisely because of this mechanism, most automatic turntables are incapable of playing any audio in the lock groove, since they will lift the arm before it reaches that groove. The catalog number and stamper ID is written or stamped in the space between the groove in the lead-out on the master disc, resulting in visible recessed writing on the final version of a record. Sometimes the cutting engineer might add handwritten comments or their signature, if they are particularly pleased with the quality of the cut.

These are generally referred to as "run-out etchings". When auto-changing turntables were commonplace, records were typically pressed with a raised or ridged outer edge and a raised label area, allowing records to be stacked onto each other without the delicate grooves coming into contact, reducing the risk of damage.

Auto-changers included a mechanism to support a stack of several records above the turntable itself, dropping them one at a time onto the active turntable to be played in order. Many longer sound recordings, such as complete operas, were interleaved across several inch or inch discs for use with auto-changing mechanisms, so that the first disk of a three-disk recording would carry sides 1 and 6 of the program, while the second disk would carry sides 2 and 5, and the third, sides 3 and 4, allowing sides 1, 2, and 3 to be played automatically; then the whole stack reversed to play sides 4, 5, and 6.

The sound quality and durability of vinyl records is highly dependent on the quality of the vinyl. During the early s, as a cost-cutting move, much of the industry began reducing the thickness and quality of vinyl used in mass-market manufacturing. The technique was marketed by RCA Victor as the Dynaflex g process, but was considered inferior by most record collectors. If stored correctly, v 5thinyl records are often said to "last forever".

But if played often, deep scratches on the surface slowly destroy the records. Unlike CD's however, a vinyl record isn't affected only by time passing. Vinyl is a material which is sensitive for high temperatures as well as uneven temperatures on different parts of a record.

Many collectors prefer to have heavyweight vinyl albums, which have been reported to have better sound than normal vinyl because of their higher tolerance against deformation caused by normal play.

Manufacturing processes are identical regardless of weight. In fact, pressing lightweight records requires more care. An exception is the propensity of g pressings to be slightly more prone to non-fill, when the vinyl biscuit does not sufficiently fill a deep groove during pressing percussion or vocal amplitude changes are the usual locations of these artifacts.

This flaw causes a grinding or scratching sound at the non-fill point. Virgin vinyl means that the album is not from recycled plastic, and will theoretically be devoid of these impurities. In practice, this depends on the manufacturer's quality control.

The " orange peel " effect on vinyl records is caused by worn molds. Rather than having the proper mirror-like finish, the surface of the record will have a texture that looks like orange peel. This introduces noise into the record, particularly in the lower frequency range.

With direct metal mastering DMMthe master disc is cut on a copper-coated disc, which can also have a minor "orange peel" effect on the disc itself. As this "orange peel" originates in the master rather than being introduced in the pressing stage, there is no ill effect as there is no physical distortion of the groove. Original master discs are created by lathe-cutting: a lathe is used to cut a modulated groove into a blank record. The blank records for cutting used to be cooked up, as needed, by the cutting engineer, using what Robert K.

Morrison describes as a "metallic soap", containing lead litharge, ozokerite, barium sulfate, montan wax, stearin and paraffin, among other ingredients. Cut "wax" sound discs would LP) placed in a vacuum chamber and gold-sputtered to make them electrically conductive for use as mandrels in an electroforming bath, where pressing stamper parts were made.

Later, the French company Pyral invented a ready-made blank disc having a thin nitro-cellulose lacquer coating approximately 7 mils thickness on both sides that was applied to an aluminum substrate.

Lacquer cuts result in an immediately playable, or processable, master record. If vinyl pressings are wanted, the still-unplayed sound disc is used as a mandrel for electroforming nickel records that are used for manufacturing pressing stampers.

The electroformed nickel records are mechanically separated from their respective mandrels. This is done with relative ease because no actual "plating" of the mandrel occurs in the type of electrodeposition known as electroforming, unlike with electroplating, in which the adhesion of the new phase of metal is chemical and relatively permanent. The one-molecule-thick coating of silver that was sprayed onto the processed lacquer sound disc in order to make its surface electrically conductive reverse-plates onto the nickel record's face.

This negative impression disc having ridges in place of grooves is known as a nickel master, "matrix" or "father". The "father" is then used as a mandrel to electroform a positive disc known as a "mother". Many mothers can be grown on a single "father" before ridges deteriorate beyond effective use. The "mothers" are then used as mandrels for electroforming more negative discs known as "sons".

Each "mother" can be used to make many "sons" before deteriorating. The "sons" are then converted into "stampers" by center-punching a spindle hole which was lost from the lacquer sound disc during initial electroforming of the "father"and by custom-forming the target pressing profile.

This allows them to be placed in the dies of the target make and model record press and, by center-roughing, to facilitate the adhesion of the label, which gets stuck onto the vinyl pressing without any glue. In this way, several million vinyl discs can be produced from a single lacquer sound disc. When only a few hundred discs are required, instead of electroforming a "son" for each sidethe "father" is removed of its silver and converted into a stamper.

Production by this latter method, known as the "two-step process" as it does not entail creation of "sons" but does involve creation of "mothers", which are used for test playing and kept as "safeties" for electroforming future "sons" is limited to a few hundred vinyl pressings. The pressing count can increase if the stamper holds out and the quality of the vinyl is high. The "sons" made during a "three-step" electroforming make better stampers since they don't require silver removal which reduces some high fidelity because of etching erasing part of the smallest groove modulations and also because they have a stronger metal structure than "fathers".

Shellac 78s are fragile, and must be handled carefully. In the event of a 78 breaking, the pieces might remain loosely connected by the label and still be playable if the label holds them together, although there is a loud pop with each pass over the crack, and breaking of the stylus is likely. Breakage was very common in the shellac era.

He wanted to cry but could not. Salinger 's novel The Catcher in the Rye occurs after the adolescent protagonist buys a record for his younger sister but drops it and "it broke into pieces I damn-near cried, it made me feel so terrible. Another problem with shellac was that the size of the disks tended to be larger because it was limited to 80— groove walls per inch before the risk of groove collapse became too high, whereas vinyl could have up to groove walls per inch.

By the time World War II began, major labels were experimenting with laminated records. As stated above, and in several record advertisements of the period, the materials that make for a quiet surface shellac are notoriously weak and fragile.

Conversely the materials that make for a strong disc cardboard and other fiber products are not those known for allowing a quiet noise-free surface. Although vinyl records are strong and don't break easily, they scratch due to its soft material sometimes resulting in ruining the record. Vinyl readily acquires a static charge, attracting dust that LP) difficult to remove completely.

Dust and scratches cause audio clicks and pops. In extreme cases, they can cause the needle to skip over a series of grooves, or worse yet, cause the needle to skip backwards, creating a "locked groove" that repeats over and over. This is the origin of the phrase " like a broken record " or "like a scratched record", which is often used to describe a person or thing that continually repeats itself.

Vinyl records can be warped by heatimproper storage, exposure to sunlight, or manufacturing defects such as excessively tight plastic shrinkwrap on the album cover. A small degree of warp was common, and allowing for it was part of the art of turntable and tonearm design.

Standard practice for LPs was to place the LP in a paper or plastic inner cover. This, if placed within the outer cardboard cover so that the opening was entirely within the outer cover, was said to reduce ingress of dust onto the record surface.

Singles, with rare exceptions, had simple paper covers with no inner cover. A further limitation of the gramophone record is that fidelity steadily declines as playback progresses; there is more vinyl per second available for fine reproduction of high frequencies at the large-diameter beginning of the groove than exist at the smaller diameters close to the end of the side.

At the start of a groove on an LP there are mm of vinyl per second traveling past the stylus LP) the ending of the groove gives — mm of vinyl per second — less than half the linear resolution. Another problem arises because of the geometry of the tonearm. Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw.

Most turntables use a pivoting tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth errors, and thus distortion in the playback signal. Various mechanisms were devised in attempts to compensate, with varying degrees of success.

See more at phonograph. There is controversy about the relative quality of CD sound and LP sound when the latter is heard under the very best conditions see Analog vs.

It is notable, however, that one technical advantage with vinyl compared to the optical CD is that if correctly handled and stored, the vinyl record will be playable for decades and possibly centuries, [85] which is longer than some versions of the optical CD. Guidelines for proper vinyl storage include not stacking records on top of each other, avoiding heat or direct sunlight and placing them in a temperature controlled area which will help prevent vinyl records from warping and scratching.

Collectors store their records in a variety of boxes, cubes, shelves and racks. Even so, these early electronically recorded records used the exponential-horn phonograph see Orthophonic Victrola for reproduction. CD-4 LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left groove wall and one in the right groove wall. CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response. The recommended stylus for CD-4 as well as regular stereo records was a line contact or Shibata type.

Gramophone sound includes rumble, which is low-frequency below about 30 Hz mechanical noise generated by the motor bearings and picked up by the stylus. Equipment of modest quality is relatively unaffected by these issues, as the amplifier and speaker will not reproduce such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable assemblies need careful design to minimize audible rumble.

Tonearm skating forces and other perturbations are also picked up by the stylus. This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the control signal restoring force used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself. Subsonic frequencies below about 20 Hz in the audio signal are dominated by tracking effects, which is one form of unwanted rumble "tracking noise" and merges with audible frequencies in the deep bass range up to about Hz.

High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble. During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as just above 0. Another reason for very low frequency material can be a warped disk: its undulations produce frequencies of only a few hertz and present day amplifiers have large power bandwidths.

For this reason, many stereo receivers contained a switchable subsonic filter. Some subsonic content is directly out of phase in each channel. If played back on a mono subwoofer system, the noise will cancel, significantly reducing the amount of rumble that is reproduced.

High frequency hiss is generated as the stylus rubs against the vinyl, and dirt and dust on the vinyl produces popping and ticking sounds. The latter can be reduced somewhat by cleaning the record before playback. Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, both high and low frequencies were removed from the first recorded signals by various formulae.

With low frequencies, the stylus must swing a long way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up more space and limiting the playing time of the record. At high frequencies, hiss, pops, and ticks are significant. These problems can be reduced by using equalization to an agreed standard. During recording the amplitude of low frequencies is reduced, thus reducing the groove width required, and the amplitude at high frequencies is increased. The playback equipment boosts bass and cuts treble so as to restore the tonal balance in the original signal; this also reduces the high frequency noise.

Thus more music will fit on the record, and noise is reduced. The current standard is called RIAA equalization. It was agreed upon in and implemented in the United States in ; it was not widely used in other countries until the s. Before that, especially fromsome different formulae were used by the record manufacturers.

In Joseph P. Maxwell and Henry C. Harrison from Bell Telephone Laboratories disclosed that the recording pattern of the Western Electric "rubber line" magnetic disc cutter had a constant velocity characteristic. This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording amplitude decreased.

Conversely, in the bass as frequency decreased, recording amplitude increased. Therefore, it was necessary to attenuate the bass frequencies below about Hz, the bass turnover point, in the amplified microphone signal fed to the recording head.

Otherwise, bass modulation became excessive and overcutting took place into the next record groove. When played back electrically with a magnetic pickup having a smooth response in the bass region, a complementary boost in amplitude at the bass turnover point was necessary. Miller in reported that when complementary boost at the turnover point was used in radio broadcasts of records, the reproduction was more realistic and many of the musical instruments stood out in their true form.

West in and later P. Voigt showed that the early Wente-style condenser microphones contributed to a 4 to 6 dB midrange brilliance or pre-emphasis in the recording chain. This meant that the electrical recording characteristics of Western Electric licensees such as Columbia Records and Victor Talking Machine Company in the era had a higher amplitude in the midrange region.

Brilliance such as this compensated for dullness in many early magnetic pickups having drooping midrange and treble response. Over the years a variety of record equalization practices emerged and there was no industry standard. Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the — period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry.

Heretofore, electrical recording technology from company to company was considered a proprietary art all the way back to the Western Electric licensed method used by Columbia and Victor. Broadcasters were faced with having to adapt daily to the varied recording characteristics of many sources: various makers of "home recordings" readily available to the public, European recordings, lateral-cut transcriptions, and vertical-cut transcriptions.

The NAB, among other items, issued recording standards in for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions.

Empirically, and not by any formula, it was learned that the bass end of the audio spectrum below Hz could be boosted somewhat to override system hum and turntable rumble noises. Likewise at the treble end beginning at 1, Hz, if audio frequencies were boosted by 16 dB at 10, Hz the delicate sibilant sounds of speech and high overtones of musical instruments could survive the noise level of cellulose acetatelacquer —aluminum, and vinyl disc media. When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal-to-noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more lifelike.

Columbia disclosed a recording characteristic showing that it was like the NAB curve in the treble, but had more bass boost or pre-emphasis below Hz.

The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve. This was the first such curve based on formulae. This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers.

If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a worthy goal towards standardization. Besides also being a battle of disc size and record speed, there was a technical difference in the recording characteristics. Ultimately, the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R. Moyer of RCA Victor in He traced RCA Victor characteristics back to the Western Electric "rubber line" recorder in up to the early s laying claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years.

It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve. Hence the RIAA curve did not truly become a global standard until the late s.

Further, even after officially agreeing to implement the RIAA equalization curve, many recording labels continued to use their own proprietary equalization even well into the s. Overall sound fidelity of records produced acoustically using horns instead of microphones had a distant, hollow tone quality. Some voices and instruments recorded better than others; Enrico Carusoa famous tenor, was one popular recording artist of the acoustic era whose voice was well matched to the recording horn.

It has been asked, "Did Caruso make the phonograph, or did the phonograph make Caruso? Delicate sounds and fine overtones were mostly lost, because it took a lot of sound energy to vibrate the recording horn diaphragm and cutting mechanism. There were acoustic limitations due to mechanical resonances in both the recording and playback system. Some pictures of acoustic recording sessions show horns wrapped with tape to help mute these resonances.

Even an acoustic recording played back electrically on modern equipment sounds like it was recorded through a horn, notwithstanding a reduction in distortion because of the modern playback. Toward the end of the acoustic era, there were many fine examples of recordings made with horns. Electric recording, which developed as early radio became popularbenefited from the microphones and amplifiers used in radio studios.

The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings, except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records. This was in spite of some carbon microphones used, which had resonances that colored the recorded tone. The double button carbon microphone with stretched diaphragm was a marked improvement. Alternatively, the Wente style condenser microphone used with the Western Electric licensed recording method had a brilliant midrange and was prone to overloading from sibilants in speech, but generally it gave more accurate reproduction than carbon microphones.

It was not unusual for electric recordings to be played back on acoustic phonographs. The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a prime example where such playback was expected. In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup head was redesigned with lower resonance than the traditional mica type. Also, a folded horn with an exponential taper was constructed inside the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air.

As a result, playback of an Orthophonic record sounded like it was coming from a radio. Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the s and s, the overall tone was much like listening to a radio of the era.

Magnetic pickups became more common and were better designed as time went on, making it possible to improve the damping of spurious resonances. Crystal pickups were also introduced as lower cost alternatives. The dynamic or moving coil microphone was introduced around and the velocity or ribbon microphone in Both of these high quality microphones became widespread in motion picture, radio, recording, and public address applications.

Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise levels improved to the point that it was harder to tell the difference between a live performance in the studio and the recorded version. This was especially true after the invention of the variable reluctance magnetic pickup cartridge by General LP) in the s when high quality cuts were played on well-designed audio systems.

There were important quality advances in recordings specifically made for radio broadcast. The intent of the new Western Electric system was to improve the overall quality of disc recording and playback. The newly invented Western Electric moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System. It had a flatter audio response than the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics installed in the microphone housing.

Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to help override noise in playback. Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time. Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion, which plagued lateral cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system.

Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing. Vinyl pressings were made with stampers from master cuts that were electroplated in vacuo by means of gold sputtering.

Audio response was claimed out to 8, Hz, later 13, Hz, using light weight pickups employing jeweled styli. Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels. Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business.

Developmentally, much of the technology of the long playing record, successfully released by Columbia incame from wide range radio transcription practices.

The use of vinyl pressings, increased length of programming, and general improvement in audio quality over 78 rpm records were the major selling points. Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and William S. Bachman in made it possible for a great variety of Arthur Fiedler With The Boston Pops Orchestra - Overtures (Vinyl companies to get into the business of making long playing records.

The LP record for longer works, 45 rpm for pop music, and FM radio became high fidelity program sources in demand.

Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated more record sales. The industry flourished. Ultimately, the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R. Moyer of RCA Victor in He traced RCA Victor characteristics back to the Western Electric "rubber line" recorder in up to the early s laying claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years.

It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve. Hence the RIAA curve did not truly become a global standard until the late s. Further, even after officially agreeing to implement the RIAA equalization curve, many recording labels continued to use their own proprietary equalization even well into the s.

Overall sound fidelity of records produced acoustically using horns instead of microphones had a distant, hollow tone quality. Some voices and instruments recorded better than others; Enrico Carusoa famous tenor, was one popular recording artist of the acoustic era whose voice was well matched to the recording horn. It has been asked, "Did Caruso make the phonograph, or did the phonograph make Caruso?

Delicate sounds and fine overtones were mostly lost, because it took a lot of sound energy to vibrate the recording horn diaphragm and cutting mechanism. There were acoustic limitations due to mechanical resonances in both the recording and playback system. Some pictures of acoustic recording sessions show horns wrapped with tape to help mute these resonances.

Even an acoustic recording played back electrically on modern equipment sounds like it was recorded through a horn, notwithstanding a reduction in distortion because of the modern playback. Toward the end of the acoustic era, there were many fine examples of recordings made with horns. Electric recording, which developed as early radio became popularbenefited from the microphones and amplifiers used in radio studios. The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings, except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records.

This was in spite of some carbon microphones used, which had resonances that colored the recorded tone. The double button carbon microphone with stretched diaphragm was a marked improvement.

Alternatively, the Wente style condenser microphone used with the Western Electric licensed recording method had a brilliant midrange and was prone to overloading from sibilants in speech, but generally it gave more accurate reproduction than carbon microphones.

It was not unusual for electric recordings to be played back on acoustic phonographs. The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a prime example where such playback was expected. In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup head was redesigned with lower resonance than the traditional mica type.

Also, a folded horn with an exponential taper was constructed inside the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air. As a result, playback of an Orthophonic record sounded like it was coming from a radio. Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the s and s, the overall tone was much like listening to a radio of the era.

Magnetic pickups became more common and were better designed as time went on, making it possible to improve the damping of spurious resonances. Crystal pickups were also introduced as lower cost alternatives. The dynamic or moving coil microphone was introduced around and the velocity or ribbon microphone in Both of these high quality microphones became widespread in motion picture, radio, recording, and public address applications.

Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise levels improved to the point that it was harder to tell the difference between a live performance in the studio and the recorded version. This was especially true after the invention of the variable reluctance magnetic pickup cartridge by General Electric in the s when high quality cuts were played on well-designed audio systems. There were important quality advances in recordings specifically made for radio broadcast.

The intent of the new Western Electric system was to improve the overall quality of disc recording and playback. The newly invented Western Electric moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System.

It had a flatter audio response than the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics installed in the microphone housing. Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to help override noise in playback.

Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time.

Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion, which plagued lateral cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system.

Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing. Vinyl pressings were made with stampers from master cuts that were electroplated in vacuo by means of gold sputtering.

Audio response was claimed out to 8, Hz, later 13, Hz, using light weight pickups employing jeweled styli. Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels. Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business.

Developmentally, much of the technology of the long playing record, successfully released by Columbia incame from wide range radio transcription practices. The use of vinyl pressings, increased length of programming, and general improvement in audio quality over 78 rpm records were the major selling points.

Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and William S. Bachman in made it possible for a great variety of record companies to get into the business of making long playing records. The LP record for longer works, 45 rpm for pop music, and FM radio became high fidelity program sources in demand. Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated more record sales. The industry flourished. Technology used in making recordings also developed and prospered. There were ten major evolutionary steps that improved LP production and quality during a period of approximately forty years.

At the time of the introduction of the compact disc CD inthe stereo LP pressed in vinyl was at the high point of its development. Still, it continued to suffer from a variety of limitations:. Audiophiles have differed over the relative merits of the LP versus the CD since the digital disc was introduced. Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling systems used in digital recordings have eliminated perceived problems observed with very early CD players.

There is a theory that vinyl records can audibly represent higher frequencies than compact discs, though most of this is noise and not relevant to human hearing.

According to Red Book specificationsthe compact disc has a frequency response of 20 Hz up to 22, Hz, and most CD players measure flat within a fraction of a decibel from at least 0 Hz to 20 kHz at full output. Due to the distance required between grooves, it is not possible for an LP to reproduce as low frequencies as a CD. Additionally, turntable rumble and acoustic feedback obscures the low-end limit of vinyl but the upper end can be, with some cartridges, reasonably flat within a few decibels to 30 kHz, with gentle roll-off.

Carrier signals of Quad LPs popular in the s were at 30 kHz to be out of the range of human hearing. The average human auditory system is sensitive to frequencies from 20 Hz to a maximum of around 20, Hz. High frequency sensitivity decreases as a person ages, a process called presbycusis. For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the "master disc" at the recording studio.

From about on earlier for some large record companies, later for some small ones it became usual to have the performance first recorded on audio tapewhich could then be processed or edited, and then dubbed on to the master disc. A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Early versions of these master discs were soft waxand later a harder lacquer was used.

The mastering process was originally something of an art as the operator had to manually allow for the changes in sound which affected how wide the space for the groove needed to be on each rotation. As the playing of gramophone records causes gradual degradation of the recording, they are best preserved by transferring them onto other media and playing the records as rarely as possible. They need to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable.

Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, from before the era of tape or where no tape master exists, archivists play back the disc on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a digital format, which can be copied and manipulated to remove analog flaws without any further damage to the source recording. For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player [97] to transfer 78s. Anyone can do this using a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp pre-amplifier and a typical personal computer.

However, for accurate transfer, professional archivists carefully choose the correct stylus shape and diameter, tracking weight, equalisation curve and other playback parameters and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters. As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format.

This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback. This technique also has the potential to allow for reconstruction of broken or otherwise damaged discs. Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for nearly a century—withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tapethe 8-track cartridgeand the compact cassette.

The widespread popularity of Sony's Walkman was a factor that contributed to the vinyl's lessening usage in the s. Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between and[] when the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles. First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing any credit at all for returns.

Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, only ordered proven, popular titles that they knew would sell, and devoted more shelf space to CDs and cassettes. Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants. This rapid decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which unlike today, were more profitable for the record companies.

In spite of their flaws, such as the lack of portability, records still have enthusiastic supporters. Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today, [] especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophilescollectorsand DJs.

Old records and out-of-print recordings in particular are in much demand by collectors the world over. See Record collecting. Many popular new albums are given releases on vinyl records and older albums are also given reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl.

In the United Kingdom, the popularity of indie rock caused sales of new vinyl records particularly 7 inch singles to increase significantly in[] [] briefly reversing the downward trend seen during the s. In the United States, annual vinyl sales increased by Many electronic dance music and hip hop releases today are still preferred on vinyl; however, digital copies are still widely available.

This is because for disc jockeys "DJs"vinyl has an advantage over the CD: direct manipulation of the medium. DJ techniques such as slip-cueingbeatmatchingand scratching originated on turntables. With CDs or compact audio cassettes one normally has only indirect manipulation options, e.

With a record one can place the stylus a few grooves farther in or out, accelerate or decelerate the turntable, or even reverse its direction, provided the stylus, record playerand record itself are built to withstand it. Figures released in the United States in early showed that sales of vinyl albums nearly doubled inwith 1.

Sales have continued to rise into the s, with around 2. InTaylor Swift soldcopies of her ninth studio album Evermore on vinyl. The sales of the record beat the largest sales in one week on vinyl since Nielsen started tracking vinyl sales in The sales record was previously held by Jack White who sold 40, copies of his second solo release, Lazarettoon vinyl in Inthe sale of vinyl records was the only physical music medium with increasing sales with relation to the previous year.

Sales of other mediums including individual digital tracks, digital albums and compact discs have fallen, the last having the greatest drop-in-sales rate. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. According to the RIAA 's midyear report inphonograph record revenues surpassed those of CDs for the first time since the s.

VinylVideo is a format to store a low resolution black and white video on a vinyl record alongside encoded audio. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the magazine, see Phonograph Record magazine. Disc-shaped vinyl analog sound storage medium. Play media. Video of a spring-motor-driven 78 rpm acoustic non-electronic gramophone playing a shellac record.

See also: LP record. Further information: High fidelity. Main article: Laser turntable. See also: Comparison of recording media. Main article: Unusual types of gramophone records. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. For other uses, see Broken Record disambiguation. Further information: Analog recording vs. Further information: Production of phonograph records.

See also: Vinyl revival. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April Archived at the Wayback Machine. Kitchener — Waterloo Record — Kitchener, Ont. Archived from the original on Wired UK. Retrieved Metrication Matters. Information Week. The New York Times. The talking phonograph. Scientific American, 14 December, LIFE : 87— Music Educators JournalVol. The Recording and Reproduction of Sound revised and enlarged 2nd ed.

Indianapolis: Howard W. London: British Library. Archived PDF from the original on The New York TimesFebruary 23,p. Archived at the Wayback Machine Front page. All 8-inch discs have such stamps on them. Cambridge University Press. University Press of Florida. ISBN Peyton's Big Damn Band".

Oxford University Press. Walker Spalding, Lincolnshire: The Authors. London: The British Library. Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. ISSN New York: Billboard Publishing Co. Sound recording: the life story of a technology.

Greenwood technographies. JHU Press. Audio signal processing and coding. American record guidep. This compander exists in two identically named but slightly different versions; only one of them has a dedicated "Disk" setting, the other one instead has an additional setting to combine subsonic with MPX filtering.

In this model, High-Com II encoded vinyl disks have to be played back through the "Rec" setting of a connected tape deck. Bizet Carmen prelude [] 2. Rimsky-Korsakov Procession of the Nobles from Mlada [] 3.

Brahms Hungarian Dance No. Sextet Sherman Martin Austin : 1. Impressions John Coltrane [] 2. Mimosa Dennis Irwin [] 3. Little B's Poem Bobby Hutcherson [] 4. The result is High-Com IIthe world's finest two-band noise-reduction system. There is no residual hiss ; the ticks, pops, and crackles that mar conventional discs are absent. So is turntable rumble. The loud passages emerge with unprecedented clarity since they need not be recorded at so high and distortion-producing a level.

This common fault of noise-reduction systems has been eliminated in High-Com II. Listen also to High-Com II's remarkable ability to accurately preserve musical transients.

They are neither muted nor exaggerated nor edgy as with other companders. This accuracy of reproduction—on all types of music, at all frequencies, and at all levels—is what distinguishes High-Com II from other noise-reduction systems. Low-level signals are processed for maximum noise reduction, high-level ones for minimum distortion.

This sophisticated technique assumes maximum dynamic range with minimum "breathing" and other audible side effects. Sound without breathing, pumping, or other ill side effects. Includes a description of the UC compander system. Written at Dresden, Germany.

According to the author he later also developed an improved version utilizing more modern ICs. Lexikon Imprint Verlag. Die Expansion erfolgt spiegelverkehrt. Vermutlich aus diesem Grund hat man auf eine weithin sichtbare Kennzeichnung der mit diesem Verfahren aufgenommenen Platten verzichtet. Bis dahin gibt es aber noch eine Schwierigkeit. Also shows a picture of the "U" engraving in the silent inner groove indicating UC encoded vinyl disks.

Aardvark Mastering. The Vinyl Factory. The Talking Machine Review International. Ernie Bayly, Bournemouth 38 : — Record Industry Association of America Inc. The Record Collectors Guild. Accessed January 26, It's been said to be less noisy, which really has more to do with the grade of vinyl.

The Audiophiliac takes on that myth". Recollections guide to collectible LPsvolume 1, p. In Glen Ballou ed. Howard W.

Small Signal Audio Design. Haber Audio Engineering Society. Entertainment Weekly Hal Leonard Corporation. Journal of Popular Culture. The Business Online. London: Telegraph. Rolling Stone. The Sydney Morning Herald.

Archived from the original PDF on The trend to buy vinyl records continues. Since has the global sales increased from approximately 3. Despite this, is it still a small part of the total record sale.

In Sweden was The artists who sell most ar usually older artists and records. Other popular artists are Beatles, Led Zeppelin and Adele" a screenshot of the teletext page exist and can be uploaded, if allowed at Commons and if requested. Music Year-End Report". Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 22 September And UK - hypebot". Randy Collects. Fadeyev, V. Lawrence, Harold; "Mercury Living Presence".

Compact disc liner notes. International standard IEC Analogue audio disk records and reproducing equipment. Third edition, International Electrotechnical Commission Broadcast Transcription Discs. Playback Equalizer Settings for 78 rpm Recordings. Third Edition. The Oxford Companion to Music. Ninth edition, Oxford University Press, Ashgate, Carson, A. Burt, and H.

Payback (14) & A.K.A. (13) - Soul Renegades EP (File, MP3), The Song Is You - Charlie Parker - 1945 - 1953 (CD), Angeleyes - ABBA - Voulez-Vous (Cassette, Album), Sexy Lady - Various - More Funk (Vinyl, LP, Album), Say Youll Be Mine - Robert Earl (2) - Say Youll Be Mine / Love Will Find A Way (Vinyl), Whisper Not - Milt Jackson - Eight Classic Albums (CD), Nothings Gonna Stop Me Now - Samantha Fox - Nothings Gonna Stop Me Now (Vinyl), Ничего Не Хотим - Various - Рэп Со Знаком Качества 10 (Limited Edition) (CD), Sjømannsjul På Hawaii - Various - Gledelig Jul (Vinyl, LP), Peace And Love (Amani Na Mapenzi) - Mandrill - Mandrill (Vinyl, LP, Album), Still Water (Love) - Various - Motown Chartbusters Volume 5 (CD, Album), Calypso - Giorgio Faletti - Disperato Ma Non Serio (Vinyl, LP, Album)

Franck Pourcel - Coffret 2011 - 4 Albums (CD, Album)

Isn't She Lovely 6. Only Franck Pourcel - Coffret 2011 - 4 Albums (CD 7. La Vie en rose 8. Unforgettable 9. Avec Dancing Queen La Maladie d'amour In a Nostalgia Mood Penny Lane Chariot Un homme et une femme 2. Saturday Night Fever Manhattan Skyline 4. Mister Kiss Kiss Bang Bang 5. En stock en magasin Franck Pourcel - Coffret 2011 - 4 Albums (CD. A l'origine, la valse vient de l'allemand walzer qui signifie Franck Pourcel - Coffret 2011 - 4 Albums (CD en cercle.

Search results Album) Valse fougueuse Strauss: Composer birthdays. Jorrit Tamminga 48 years ago. Eric Whitacre 51 years ago. Patrizio Marrone 60 years ago. Volker Blumenthaler 70 years ago. Stephen Tosh 72 years ago. Composers death today. Francis Bayer 17 years ago. Rolf Liebermann 22 years ago. Peter Jona Korn 23 years ago. Aujourd'hui Album) Rakuten, Valse De Strauss vous attendent au sein de notre rayon.

Kaiser-Walzer London : E. Erato catalog has been edited in other countries, as Series of other labels. DP earliest monaural issues, I guess it. For accordion orchestra. Published by Edition Dux Verla. Orchestre Horizon - juil. Orchestre Horizon - mai 14 titres - Pop, Rock. Guy Denys. Lily Guilloux. Charlie Puth. Christian Gauchy. Jean-Georges has made culinary history and developed a reputation as remarkable as his food by tapping his deep understanding of the restaurant world and pairing it with his forward-thinking vision.

Yet, after years of success, Jean-Georges' favorite retreat is still the kitchen, and his favorite meals dished from Franck Pourcel - Coffret 2011 - 4 Albums (CD street cart in Thailand. Partitions musicales Achat en ligne. Caussade, Jean Rivier et Darius Milhaud. Il peut diriger un orchestre symphonique, philharmonique, de jazz ou encore une fanfare. Paris comme Destinata.

Lendl u. Schwarz; Steir.

Jump Shout Boogie - Barry Manilow - Greatest Hits (Vinyl, LP), U2 - The Fly (Vinyl), You´ll Never Walk Alone - Various - Ei Med Alt! Rogalandsartister Synger Sine Favorittsanger (CD), Infant Eyes - Wayne Shorter - Speak No Evil (Vinyl, LP, Album), I Feel Free - Belinda Carlisle - MP3 (CD), To Be Young, Gifted And Black, Ride The Punanny - Various - Jungle Hits Volume 1 (Vinyl, LP), Initiation - Alex Sanders - A Witch Is Born (CD), Dont You Know - Frankie Paul - The Classic (Vinyl, LP, Album), Silver Springs - Stevie Nicks - Crystal Visions...The Very Best Of Stevie Nicks (CD), Wavelength - Nile Rodgers - B-Movie Matinee (CD, Album), Now I Want To, Seul Sur Mon Etoile - Gilbert Bécaud - LOlympia 97 (CD, Album), Disaster - Brandnewsunset* - Pick You Up When Youre Falling Down (CD), Have Yourself A Merry Little Christmas