Language differs from other forms of communication in that it is modality independent ; the same meanings can be conveyed through different media, audibly in speechvisually by sign language or writing, and through tactile media such as braille. Human arts can take many forms including visualliterary and performing. Visual art can range from paintings and sculptures to filminteraction design and architecture.
Art is a defining characteristic of humans and there is evidence for a relationship between creativity and language. These include allowing them to better problem solve issues, providing a means to control or influence other humans, encouraging cooperation and contribution within a society or increasing the chance of attracting a potential mate.
Evidence of humans engaging in musical activities predates cave art and so far music has been practiced by virtually all known human cultures. Unlike speaking, reading and writing does not come naturally to humans and must be taught. Stone tools were used by proto-humans at least 2. China developed paperthe printing pressgunpowderthe compass and other important inventions.
Religion is generally defined as a belief system concerning the supernaturalsacred or divineand practices, valuesinstitutions and rituals associated with such belief. Some religions also have a moral code. The evolution and the history of the first religions have recently become areas of active scientific investigation.
There is no accepted academic definition of what constitutes religion. Although the exact level of religiosity can be hard to measure,  a majority of humans professes some variety of religious or spiritual belief. An aspect unique to humans is their ability to transmit knowledge from one generation to the next and to continually build on this information to develop tools, scientific laws and other advances to pass on further.
A chain of events and influences led to the development of the scientific methoda process of observation and experimentation that is used to differentiate science from pseudoscience. Philosophy is a field of study where humans seek to understand fundamental truths about themselves and the world in which they live.
Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interaction between humans. Humans are highly social beings and tend to live in large complex social groups.
They can be divided into different groups according to their income, wealth, powerreputation and other factors.
The first forms of human social organization were families living in band societies as hunter-gatherers. All human societies organize, recognize and classify types of social relationships based on relations between parents, children and other descendants consanguinityand relations through marriage affinity. There is also a third type applied to godparents or adoptive children fictive. These culturally defined relationships are referred to as kinship. In many societies, it is one of the most important social organizing principles and plays a role in transmitting status and inheritance.
Human ethnic groups are a social category that identifies together as a group based on shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. These can be a common set of traditions, ancestrylanguagehistorysocietyculturenationreligionor social treatment within their residing area. This has been closely tied to the rise of the nation state as the predominant form of political organization in the 19th and 20th centuries.
The early distribution of political power was determined by the availability of fresh waterfertile soiland temperate climate of different locations.
This led to the development of governance within and between the communities. Governments Album) laws and policies that affect the citizens that they govern. There have been multiple forms of government throughout human history, each having various means of obtaining power and the ability to exert diverse controls on the population. Trade, the voluntary exchange of goods and services, is seen as a characteristic that differentiates humans from other animals and has been cited as a practice that gave Homo sapiens a major advantage over other hominids.
Early human economies were more likely to be based around gift giving instead of a bartering system. Humans commit violence on other humans at a rate comparable to other primates, but at a higher rate than most other mammals. The willingness of humans to kill other members of their species en masse through organized conflict i. One school of thought is that war evolved as a means to eliminate competitors, and has always been an innate human characteristic.
The other suggests that war is a relatively recent phenomenon and appeared due to changing social conditions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Species of hominid in the genus Homo. Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Human disambiguationMankind disambiguationHumankind disambiguationHuman Race disambiguationHuman Being disambiguation and Homo sapiens disambiguation. Temporal range: 0. Further information: Names for the human species and Human taxonomy. Main article: Human evolution. Main article: Human history.
Further information: Human migration and Demography. Main article: Human body. Main article: Human genetics. Further information: Human evolutionary genetics. See also: Childbirth and Life expectancy. Main article: Human nutrition. Main article: Human genetic variation. Main article: Psychology. See also: Neuroscience. Main articles: Sleep and Dream. Main articles: Consciousness and Cognition. Main articles: Motivation and Emotion. Main articles: Human sexuality and Love.
Main articles: Culture and Cultural universal. Main article: Language. Main article: The arts. Main articles: Tool and Technology. Main articles: Religion and Spirituality. Main articles: Science and Philosophy. Main article: Society. Main article: Kinship. Main article: Ethnic group. Main articles: Government and Politics. Main articles: Trade and Economics. See also: War and Violence. Mammals portal Evolutionary biology portal Science portal. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
ISBN OCLC Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences. JSTOR Random House, Inc. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 31 March Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. ISSN Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 14 September Retrieved 4 July International Encyclopedia of Biological Anthropology. Retrieved 26 May Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences.
March Journal of Molecular Evolution. Bibcode : JMolE. PMID S2CID Molecular Biology and Evolution. New Scientist. Bibcode : NewSc. Evolution pages. Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 18 May Bibcode : Sci Bibcode : Natur. Science This Week in Science. Retrieved 23 November Current Biology. April Genome Research. PMC Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 1 May BBC News.
July University of Waikato. Archived PDF from the original on 22 May Retrieved 29 April December Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Archived from the original PDF on 24 August Evolutionary Biology. October How Humans Evolved. New York City: Norton. Oxford University Press. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.
Animals and Human Society. The Holocene. Bibcode : Holoc. May Bibcode : PNAS. Science Advances. Bibcode : SciA Current Anthropology. Journal of Archaeological Science. Retrieved 11 July Western Civilization: Volume A: To Cenpage Learning.
Archived from the original on 5 September Bang PF, Scheidel W eds. Ancient Near Eastern City-States. Retrieved 16 April In Hasselbach-Andee R ed. The Sumerian World. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. Comparative Studies in Society and History. In Potts DT ed. A companion to the archaeology of the ancient Near East. Ch 19 Watercraft. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 8 February Early physics and astronomy: A historical introduction.
CUP Archive. Mathematics in ancient Iraq: A social history. Princeton University Press. Technology and Culture. ISSN X. Univ of California Press. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory. August Cambridge University Press.
In Milisauskas S ed. European Prehistory: A Survey. Interdisciplinary Contributions to Album). New York, NY: Springer. History as Wonder: Beginning with Historiography. The Guardian. Retrieved 17 April Stanford University. June Latin American Antiquity. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies. International Journal of Public Administration. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Architectural History. Science and Religion Around the World.
New York: Oxford University Press. International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life. Cham: Springer International Publishing. The Harper Atlas of World History. Simon and Schuster. New Georgia Encyclopedia.
Retrieved 15 November The Mongol Conquests in World History. Reaktion Books. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Retrieved 7 May Asian Perspectives. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History. Pacific Affairs. Al-Ta Lim Journal. The European Renaissance, Harlow, England. But not Jigsaw. Once again Gareth Rees and Richard Tucker were the playtesters and de-facto editors, and the two games were recognisably from the same stable.
There are many similarities, even down to having a one-word title, which I liked because it meant that the filename on an FTP server would likely be the whole title. It was always going to be a Z-machine story file once again, written with Inform.
And it was playable under the same. This was a sneaky way to try to persuade interpreter-writers to adopt. Unlike Cursesthough, Jigsaw was conceived holistically, had a rigorous plan, and was meant for the public rather than for friends.
Let me also praise Mike Dornbrook here, who was instrumental in making those games into clearly delineated works. Those mature works of Infocom were satisfying to start, and satisfying to finish, and distinctive from each other.
Jigsaw strains to be a work of art, and though the strain shows from time to time, I think it mostly gets there. There are little embedded prose poems, generally at hinges in the story. Certain images — the nightjar, for example — are suggestive rather than explicated.
Jigsaw plays on the tantalising way that past times were so confident at being themselves. Nobody using an Apollo Guidance Computer thought of it as twee or retro. And you could say the same about a tram-ticket or a gas lamp, things that people used without a second thought.
We have absolute confidence only about our own present moment, while the past seems hazy and uncertain. But the people who lived in that past felt exactly the same about their own present moments. For historical fiction to work, it has to side with them, not with us. As I wrote Jigsaw inthe twentieth century was coming to a relatively placid end — I hope anyone caught up in the Yugoslav civil wars will forgive me writing that.
It was zeitgeisty to see the story of the age as being mostly done, even with a few years still to go. People were already gathering and tidying up the twentieth century. Jigsaw has a classical IF structure, with a prologue, a middle game, and an end game. Notably, these have named chapter headings. The prologue takes place on the final night ofon the margins of a public festival.
The setting has something of the flavour of H. So these mechanics have to seem natural and fun to players. Getting the textual display and command verbs right was a major concern in early play-testing. With prologue out of the way, we enter the past. Attempts to define what that even means — cf. Mine is odder than most, but less odd than some.
Is 19th-century Europe the story of Napoleon and Bismarck and Garibaldi, who started wars and redrew maps, or is all of that froth compared to railways, manufacturing, anesthetics, and newspapers?
Jigsaw goes the second way, with Lenin being I think the only world leader seen close up. The Titanic sequence, the first one I wrote, is the one I would now leave out. Perhaps it left a greater sense of possible catastrophe in the popular imagination, but the Sarajevo sequence makes that point better anyway. Besides, having an accidental time traveller arrive on the Titanic is a very hackneyed plot device. Still, the ocean liner was fun to recreate as a period piece.
And researching this did lead to one happy accident. A better choice was the Apollo programme. I also wanted to have something about the mid-century zenith of big-state action — a world in which Kennedy could just decide that the United States would do something immense, and it would happen.
The Manhattan Project is another example, but Trinity had already done that. Another take on Apollo would be that it changed our sensibility, forcing us to see ourselves from the outside. The cover art for Jigsaw is the Apollo 8 shot of the earth rising from lunar orbit, maybe the most reproduced photo of the century.
First steps were last steps. To me, the question about the Pyramids is not why the pharaohs built them, but why they stopped. Also, the Internet had arrived. I corresponded a little with Eric at the time; he was, tellingly, having trouble finding a publisher. But thanks to his work, the Apollo sequence of Jigsaw — whatever its fantastical additions — is quite true to the actual Taurus-Littrow valley of the moon, and not a grey abstraction.
Fourteen historical vignettes is too many. It was hard to do much in so few rooms and items each, especially as they had to be playable in multiple orders. Even then, alternative solutions are sometimes provided. But I worried that the lack of space made these mini-games too easy, and over-compensated with highly convoluted device-based puzzles. Fly your very own B! I truly repent of how difficult that sequence is to play.
A happier example was the Enigma machine. Still, this section was really based on the oral histories of Bletchley Park edited by Hinsley and Stripp in ; accounts which, a bit madly, had only just been declassified. I was very taken with the vulnerability of Enigma, caused by the frequent presence of double letters in German words. One of the myths of Bletchley was that the invention of the computer flat-out defeated Enigma, as if you just had to press a button. It would be fairer to say that the computer made breaking the code just on the edge of what was possible.
A certain cunning was still needed, and luck as well. They found ways to make their own luck, but there were also terrible periods when they failed, and when many sailors went to the bottom of the Atlantic as a result.
My grandfather served on two Royal Navy convoys to Murmansk, and he was fortunate that those coincided with a good run at Bletchley, though he never knew it. That, and the thought that I might have been there myself if I had been an Oxford maths post-doc in rather thanmade this vignette more personal to me. Fourteen vignettes is also too few. I chose Marcel Proust and the Beatles as my artists of the century, for example, and with them I had used up the entire space available for cultural history.
My fourteen moments have to spread themselves very thinly over a lot of ground, and there is clearly no single or perfect solution to this. Still, Jigsaw has a clear Western bias. I probably should have chosen the release of Nelson Mandela in rather than the fall of the Berlin Wall in Africa appears only tangentially, in the Suez Crisis ofwhich has to stand for the whole of postcolonialism.
China does not appear at all, which from a 21st-century viewpoint seems very jarring. Why no M. That now seems very odd, except that I had plenty of the s already.
The Wright brothers to Apollo, and so on. Another consideration was, for want of a better word, taste. Fascism seemed mostly done inbut it had clearly been a big part of the story. The Holocaust does have a presence in Jigsawbut very indirectly. Buried somewhere is a little anecdote about a young Jewish boy in Berlin in the s, who had picked up a shiny badge in the street with no understanding that it was Nazi regalia which he could be killed just for touching — one of the few moments in Jigsaw told to me by an eye-witness, the boy himself, who survived to be a retired professor.
What I really did not want to do was to recreate a version of Auschwitz which came with an escape hatch. Quite the charnal house we made for ourselves, you have to say. In a room of the end game which, if memory serves, was called the Toll Gate, there is a cumulative graph of humans deliberately killed, plotted against time. There are a few other grim moments like that in the endgame, too.
The endgame is the strangest part of Jigsaw and probably the least successful. The Land does partly bring in concerns not tied to specific moments — pollution, for example, though not global warming, which we were all cheerfully ignoring in But not now, right? There is supposed to be a sort of Eden-like rebirth as another century is coming, with this endgame area as the Garden of that Eden.
Underlying all of history, but often invisible from it, there is always the goodness of the world, our one place of happiness. But it is also too fiddly and is not the enjoyable romp I intended it to be. Rooms in The Land correspond to the original pieces, but that meant having quite a lot of them, which in turn meant padding out this space with puzzles. In fact, the endgame is so long that it has a little endgame of its own, taking us back to Century Park.
But that was absolutely the right way to end. When you are composing a set of variations, finish on a da capo repetition of the original theme. Finally, whereas Curses has no significant characters other than the protagonist, in Jigsaw the player has a significant other, called Black.
In timecop sci-fi novels, the hero generally does battle with a rival time traveller. One tries to rewrite history, the other to keep it on track. Well, that is basically the situation here.
The neutral name Black also worked better for blurring gender than having to use contrived unisex forenames like Hilary, Pat, or Stevie. In retrospect, this genderless romance is the main thing people remember about Jigsaw. There is even, however glancingly, a presence of sex.
That much was deliberate. But when I was writing, the absence of genders seemed just another narrative choice. I wanted a certain universalism, a sort of every-person quality to the player. Anyway, this seemed like a statement only after publication, when I began to get rather touching emails from players. I think Jigsaw may have been quite widely played, and this was easily the aspect most responded to.
Happy emails were often from women. We easily forget now that in gay relationships were socially invisible. A handful of New York sitcoms were just starting to go there, but for the most part, in popular culture, gay people existed as people with problems.
In the s, romance in popular culture was almost exclusively straight. Nobody thought that odd at the time, and nor did I. I would like to say that the gender games in Jigsaw were a nod to the gradual emancipation of love in the twentieth century. But that was the one thing about Jigsaw which was completely unplanned. One of those emails I received was from the young Emily Shortthough we did not meet for many years, and it was in another century that we married.
History is full of surprises. All of the games reviewed in this article are freely available via the individual links provided above and are playable on Windows, Macintosh, and Linux using the Gargoyle interpreter among other options.
A harmless, enjoyable, and mostly logical text adventure written for the TRS in and reworked as a browser-based game 40 years later. Every discussion regarding early text adventures eventually leads to Scott Adams. Adams, along with his company Adventure International, released more than a dozen text adventures for 8-bit computers. These games were not only enjoyable to play, but they also inspired many budding programmers to create their own adventures. Harry McKracken was one of those kids.
Fast forward forty years. McKracken finally tracked down a copy of the book through the internet and confirmed that the published copy of his code did indeed contain a fatal flaw. McKracken spent the summer of retyping his own code, this time feeding the game into a browser-based TRS emulator. After making a few cosmetic changes, McKracken re-released his updated adventure 40 years after the original was published.
Arctic Adventure uses a pretty primitive parser, not unlike others from that era. Like most early parsers, the game only checks the first three letters of each word. From memory, I think the game uses less than ten verbs in all.
The game begins with you, the player, inside an igloo along with a shovel and a coat. After a while I began dumping everything I found next to the igloo, coming back for items as needed. The browser-based emulator supports one saved game at a time. Like many early text adventures, Arctic Adventure is dying to kill you. Enter a location carrying the wrong item? Game over. Enter a different location without a specific item?
Hang around a specific location for more than a couple of moves? Unlike modern interactive fiction games that offer UNDO features, death is swift and permanent in this game.
Play like every move might be your last, because it probably will be. For me, the most frustrating part of the game was the casino, in which players must win a certain amount of money in order to purchase a required item later in the game. The slot machine appears to be completely random, which means that players have to press the spacebar dozens of times in hopes of winning enough cash. In at least two different areas, examining an item causes another item to appear, and examining the original item again causes the discovered item to respawn.
That being said, while playing the game over the course of a week I found and reported two game-halting bugs which Mr. McKracken fixed almost immediately. Unlike games of interactive fiction that allow players the opportunity to weave original stories and create their own narrative, text adventures were, for the most part, simple games where players maneuvered through maps, found objects, encountered puzzles, and solved those puzzles using the objects they found.
Explore all the locations, find all the things, and eventually the puzzles will solve themselves. If you want to see what text adventures were like forty years ago without having to deal with floppy disks or emulators, put on your warmest pair of mittens and check out Arctic Adventure. Link: Arctic Well, damn. I was trying to forever extinguish the light and silence the music, but that really ended up backfiring on me.
The protagonist is the best sort of hero. Despite its shortness, Aayela offers a compelling study of darkness, a memorable game world, and a surprisingly emotional story. He is a former editor of SPAG. You can visit his homepage — in fact, I really think you should.
When is the last time someone wanted to share their public PGP key with you? You need this experience, dammit! Nonetheless, I truly believe he influenced, encouraged, and challenged many of the best interactive fiction writers ever. Thanks, Magnus. Aayela firmly thrusts you into the role of a young knight who serves King Dargon.
Granted, it also might not really exist, but what sort of adventure would that turn out to be? Your quest lead you to the tunnels beneath the Dark Mountains, which are dark, twisty, narrow, and generally unpleasant.
Supposedly, the Stone and the evil wizard who captured a spirit of light inside it are somewhere to be found here, but where? One of the most interesting aspects of this game is that it takes place mostly in the dark. In other text adventures, darkness is often a problem to be combatted with effective lantern or other light source management or something to be removed by solving a puzzle find the hidden light switch, learn the illuminating spell.
In Aayeladarkness is something inherent to your environment. The darkness affects every aspect of gameplay. You must play by its rules for you are not the master of your domain here. The tunnels are rather large and expansive, but every room feels much the same due to the blackness. The general feeling is one of uneasiness. I think part of the reason it took me a long time to find one of the endings to this game is because I wanted to move through the tunnels as quickly as possible to shake the uneasy feeling.
That caused me to miss an important item. Aayela is a simple, straightforward game to play through. Its puzzles, such that they are, typically only have a couple of reasonable possible solutions and only one of those will make sense in the context of your goal. You will need to spend some time navigating the tunnels and occasionally double back to trigger the appearance of an item or event. I did feel like there could be more to actually DO in the tunnels.
Adventurey type things, you know. The game does feel a little spare. That would make doing any of those things I mentioned difficult. Magnus did it all for the vibes, and I can respect that. Magnus Olsson is a very good writer and coder, and this is a well-implemented game. This is more than just a dungeon crawler. One important aspect of the plot is that you can communicate with the spirit of light not through language but through music and feeling.
This could have turned out rather corny, but Magnus did a terrific job of making it resonate emotionally. I noticed no bugs, and the parser is solid. I did wish I could communicate more with the evil wizard — I was curious about what his goals were and why he had opted to live in the tunnels with his captured spirit. Unfortunately, he proved to be the generally noncommunicative sort of Album) wizard and my attempts at conversation largely failed.
Some of the best writing in the game is saved for the endings. There are two paths to victory and both are worth playing. It would be a simplification to call one the good ending and the other the bad ending, but one made me feel a heck of a lot better about myself as it seemed designed to do. On the other hand, the less optimal ending gives you a chance at turning the tables on the wizard which was a nice feeling. One ending Conscious Structure - Non-Human Figure (CD be criticized for assuming too much and denying the possibility of you taking a less extreme, middle path.
Conscious Structure - Non-Human Figure (CD, the path it shows my character walking is one many others in history have walked. Nonetheless, Brother Darkness gives it two bony thumbs up. September 1 is the deadline to register as an author for IF Compand the games themselves will be due September Those entering IF Comp may also be interested in this best-practices discussion of how to write a walkthrough for the competition. Good prize contributions can be all kinds of things: food, games, books, donations of art or other creative services, and modern or retro gaming souvenirs have all been popular prizes in the past.
September 10Phoebe Barton is teaching a Clarion West class on interactive fiction for people interested in finding their way into the genre for the first time. Robin Johnson has released Gruescripta tool for making point-and-click text adventure games. The system also comes with a full-sized sample game, The Party Linewhose source code can be loaded up for inspection when you start a new Gruescript project.
The Party Line has a lot of familiar text adventure features: wandering NPCs with different associated actions, treasures and a place to deposit them to change the score, and randomised atmospheric messages.
Become the official playwright at the Odeon, the most prestigious theater in Medaris. Here, high society gathers to gossip, frolic, and flirt. Dazzling special effects, enhanced by real magical enchantments, keep the audience in their seats. The plays you write have the power to manipulate public opinion, changing the course of history. Mysterious accidents threaten your productions. Meanwhile, Ryan C Gordon has made a multiplayer version of Zork that players can join via telnet.
That means you can log in, start up a new Zork instance, and share the access code with some friends. There are a number of peculiarities one would probably choose to avoid if designing multiplayer parser IF from scratch or, indeed, that a lot of MUDs did avoid. The attached article gives instructions. Reed talked about games writing and prose writing as a session for Dream Foundry, and that conversation is now available on YouTube.
People are going to be looking in the book: where is that thing you just alluded to? What are its stats? The Short Game recently covered Griftlandsone of my favourite recently released games. Finally, the Distillations podcast spoke with Jeremiah McCall about using video games to teach history. This money provides prizes to authors who participate in IF Comp often in the hundreds of dollars for the top placers — not the kind of money that pays a realistic wage for the work that goes into a comp-winning game, but something that may nonetheless be a helpful boost on a restricted budget.
A portion of the funds also go to supporting the other activities of the foundation, which include maintaining the IF Archive and IFDB, supporting Twine development, putting together educational materials related to IF, running the NarraScope conference, and various other maintenance and development tasks. IFTF also created and released a report with recommendations towards making IF tools and games more accessible.
Can you win fame, fortune, and romance as a playwright, before a deadly curse brings the curtain down for good? Will you inspire them to save Medaris, or destroy it, as they destroy each other?
Will you insinuate yourself into their hearts and minds? Will you expose their darkest secrets? Will you write your way out of the tragedy that threatens your city, or call down the curse deliberately, carving your name in the annals of infamy? Powered by:. This game was an entry in PunyJam 1 where it took 1st place. This game was an entry in IF Comp where it took 16th place.
This game was an entry in ParserComp where it took 13th place. This game was a participant in the first ShuffleComp event. This story was written for NarraScope Chipmonk by Jason and Luke Swanson In this small simple adventure, you play as a monk named Chip, equipped with your trusty katana.
My walkthrough and map. Finally, past a marsh, I encountered a willow, and immense parser frustration. Guardians Chase Medallion! You take two weeks off from your high-stress software company job init's eight-bit stuff in order to drive a mail truck. You have just Album) scheduling to optimize your route, just enough scenery to learn the roads, the radio has just three songs on rotation, and sometimes you need to whip a three-point turn at 40 mph.
Which is all we ever wanted out of GTA, right? Really, the truck-driving is there to pace out a bunch of meet-the-neighborhood story threads. Follow through whichever ones you want. Some dating if you want to go there.
And it works because the game itself is a vacation. You take a few days off off from playing flashy, world-saving, tower-jumping, monster-smashing, brain-busting games. You putter around in a truck! There are no stakes! You can't win or lose! This is kind of brilliant, and also kind of self-defeating. What the game conveys is that none of this matters. But it's supposed to be a story about a grounding, self-discovering moment: you return to your home town, connect up with old friends, meet new people But it's so low-stakes that I couldn't feel very involved.
Even when I was driving off with the hot video-store owner. Well, it's a charming ride, the writing is fun, the sunrises are lovely, and I really did appreciate the break.
Sometimes there's a little Simon-style chord-following challenge under the glittering neon speaker-stacks of space. Again, very easy. Who cares? It's a gonzo sci-fi rock opera experience. It's not about the music; it's about the light show. The narrative nods at this. You are expected to do a thorough research for each assignment to earn yourself a good grade even with the limited time you have.
This calls upon the need to employ a professional writer. When you employ one of our expert writers, you can be sure to have all your assignments completed on time. All your assignment deadlines will be met plus you will have an original, non-plagiarized and error free paper. With our Achiever Papers' services, you are assured of a completely original and error free paper written exclusively for your specified needs, instructions and requirements.
All our papers are original as they are all written from scratch. We also do not re-use any of the papers we write for our customers. With this guarantee feel comfortable to message us or chat with our online agents who are available 24hours a day and 7 days a week be it on a weekend or on a holiday.
As a busy student, you might end up forgetting some of the assignments assigned to you until a night or a day before they are due. This might be very stressing due to inadequate time to do a thorough research to come up with a quality paper. Achiever Papers is here to save you from all this stress. Let our professional writers handle your assignments and submit them to you no matter how close the deadline seems to be. This will protect you from all the pressure that comes along with assignments.
You are assured of a high quality assignment that is error free and delivery will be done on time. We have a reliable team that is always available and determined to help all our clients by improving their grades. We are reliable and trusted among all our clients and thus you can entrust your academic work on us.
For any academic help you need, feel free to talk to our team for assistance and you will never regret your decision to work with us.
You can entrust all your academic work to course help online for original and high quality papers submitted on time.
We have worked with thousands of students from all over the world. Most of our clients are satisfied with the quality of services offered to them and we have received positive feedback from our clients. We have an essay service that includes plagiarism check and proofreading which is done within your assignment deadline with us. This ensures all instructions have been followed and the work submitted is original and non-plagiarized.
We offer assignment help in more than 80 courses. We are also able to handle any complex paper in any course as we have employed professional writers who are specialized in different fields of study.
From their experience, they are able to work on the most difficult assignments. The following are some of the course we offer assignment help in. In case you cannot find your course of study on the list above you can search it on the order form or chat with one of our online agents for assistance.
We will take care of all your assignment needs We are a leading online assignment help service provider. Place an Order. Calculate your essay price. Type of paper. Academic level. Pages words. Read more.
Plagiarism-free papers To ensure that all the papers we send to our clients are plagiarism free, they are all passed through a plagiarism detecting software. Calculate the price of your order Type of paper needed:. Pages: words. You will get a personal manager and a discount.
Academic level:. We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, at AM. Total price:. What advantages do you get from our Achiever Papers' services? All our academic papers are written from scratch All our clients are privileged to have all their academic papers written from scratch. We do not offer pre-written essays All our essays and assignments are written from scratch and are not connected to any essay database.
Urgent orders are delivered on time Do you have an urgent order that you need delivered but have no idea on how to do it? We provide quality assignment help in any format We have writers who are well trained and experienced in different writing and referencing formats.
Order a custom-written paper of high quality. Order Now or Free Inquiry. How do we ensure our clients are satisfied with our essay writing services? You can have the privilege of paying part by part for long orders thus you can enjoy flexible pricing.
We also give discounts for returned customers are we have returned customer discounts. Our prices depend on urgency and level of study. If you want a cheap essay, place your order with as much time as possible. Place an order on our website is very easy and will only take a few minutes of your time. Fill the order form with your assignment instructions ensuring all important information about your order is included.
Include your contact information so we can reach you if there are issues with your order that need clarification. After placing your order by submitting your assignment instructions, make payments. Once payment has been made in full, your order will be assigned to the most qualified writer who majors in your subject. The writer does in-depth research and writes your paper to produce high-quality content. The order passes through our editing department after which it is delivered to you. Drop all the files you want your writer to use in processing your order.
The files should be uploaded as soon as possible to give the writer time to review and use them in processing your order. Make sure to specify the deadline in the order form and our writers will write a paper within the indicated timeslot. Just proceed to submit your requirements here. Once you order a custom written essay, our managers will assign your order to the most well-suited writer, who has the best skills and experience for preparing your specific assignment.
You can also request one of these extra features:.
Black (Instrumental) - Rage (6) - Carved In Stone (CD, Album), Juke Street Fire - Juke FX - Juke Inside (File, Album), Brazil Reprise, Give Love On Christmas Day - The Jackson 5 - Jackson 5 Christmas Album (Vinyl, LP), Süßer Die Glocken - Unknown Artist - Stille Nacht - Die Schönsten Weihnachtslieder (Vinyl, LP, Album, Foot In Mouth - Wednesday 13s Frankenstein Drag Queens From Planet 13* - Little Box Of Horrors (CD), Hoekom Het Jy My Laat Staan - Die Vvf Dagbrekers - Hoekom Het Jy My Laat Staan (Shellac), Empty - Bib (3) - Pop (Vinyl), Pocketbooks - Carousel (CD, Album), Euge Groove - Sunday Morning (CD, Album), El Pito (Ill Never Go Back To Georgia) - Joe Cuba - The Best Of / Lo Mejor De (Vinyl, LP), New York again - Various - Know your produkt (Vinyl, LP), Infinity Babylon, Winter Marches On - Duran Duran - Notorious (Cassette, Album), We Will Fall In Love Again